Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

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First published: October 1, 2023 - Last updated: October 1, 2023


Author: Vesi Vuković

Title: Freedom Smothered

Subtitle: Gang Rape as Patriarchal Punishment of Emancipated Women in Yugoslav New Film

Journal: Alphaville: Journal of Film and Screen Media

Volume: -

Issue: 25

Year: 2023

Pages: 40-60

eISSN: 2009-4078 - Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | European History: Serbian History | Types: Rape / Gang Rape; Representations: Films / Horoskop, Povratak


- (Free Access)

- Alphaville (Free Access)

- CORA: Cork Open Research Archive (Free Access)

- ResearchGate (Free Access)


Author:, ResearchGate

Abstract: » This article investigates how women and their roles in changing Yugoslav society were represented in Yugoslav New Film (1961-1972). The Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia legalised gender equality in the wake of the Second World War, but the tentacles of patriarchy, which were difficult to eradicate, still lingered from pre-socialist times. In many films from this period there is a recurring pattern of sexual violence towards women. One possible interpretation of depicted sexual violation, for example gang rape in contemporary-themed Yugoslav New Films, is as a patriarchal punishment for the emancipation of women in terms of education, work or their sexuality. In order to examine this, I analyse two case studies, the feature-length fictional films The Return (Povratak, Živojin Pavlović, 1966) and Horoscope (Horoskop, Boro Drašković, 1969), in which the freedom of women's emancipation was smothered by gang rape. The films are explored via close readings against the backdrop of feminist film theory and the concept of the gaze. Furthermore, I scrutinise whether these representations of rape and their aftermaths condone or condemn brutality toward female characters or if they have a rather ambivalent stance toward it.« (Source: Alphaville)

  Abstract (p. 40)
  Rape in Cinema and Emancipation of Women in Real Life (p. 41)
  Modernity vs. Tradition (p. 42)
  Gang Rape (p. 46)
  Sound of Rape (p. 49)
  Mulvey Revisited and Revised: Female Gaze and Trauma, Male Gaze and Voyeurism (p. 51)
  Post-Rape Perspective (p. 54)
  Conclusion (p. 55)
  Notes (p. 57)
  References (p. 57)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Serbia / Socialist Republic of Serbia | Film: Cinema of Serbia / Živojin Pavlović, Boro Drašković | Film: Rape in fiction | Sex and the law: Rape / Gang rape