Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke


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First published: November 1, 2023 - Last updated: November 1, 2023


Authors: Kathrine Skov, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen

Title: Uncovering forensic evidence of drug-facilitated sexual assault

Subtitle: Toxicological findings from Eastern Denmark in 2015-2022

Journal: Legal Medicine

Volume: 65


Year: November 2023 (Received: July 21, 2023, Revised: September 7, 2023, Accepted: September 24, 2023)


ISSN: - Find a Library: WorldCat | eISSN: - Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 21st Century | European History: Danish History | Types: Sexual Assault / Drug-facilitated Sexual Assault


Link: ScienceDirect (Free Access)


- Sys Stybe Johansen, Retsmedicinsk Institut, Københavns Universitet (University of Copenhagen) - ORCID, ResearchGate

- Kristian Linnet, Retsmedicinsk Institut, Københavns Universitet (University of Copenhagen) - ORCID

- Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Retsmedicinsk Institut, Københavns Universitet (University of Copenhagen) - ORCID ResearchGate

- Kathrine Østerballe Skov, Retsmedicinsk Institut, Københavns Universitet (University of Copenhagen) - ORCID

Abstract: »In drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), the victim is unable to provide consent or resists sexual activity due to substance intoxication by voluntary or covert consumption. Obtaining forensic evidence of the assault is challenged by rapid drug metabolism and late sample collection. The objective of this study was to present toxicological findings and associated demographics from police reported sexual assault cases in Eastern Denmark from 2015 to 2022. A total of 369 sexual assault cases were submitted for analysis and a subgroup of 268 cases were categorized as suspected DFSA cases. The majority of the total sexual assault victims were women in the age 15-25 and the perpetrators were often unknown or an acquaintance. Time from assault to sample collected was slightly longer for suspected DFSA cases (12-24 h) compared to non-DFSA (<12 h). Positive toxicology was observed in 86% of cases and the most common drug groups included alcohol (45%), drugs of abuse (38%), antidepressants (14%), antihistamines (12%) and benzodiazepines (11%). Hypnotics were detected to a smaller extent (7%). A total of 77 drugs were detected and the most commonly observed were cocaine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cetirizine, amphetamine, diazepam and sertraline. The high level of observed alcohol and drugs of abuse indicated that most DFSA cases in Eastern Denmark were of an opportunistic approach rather than proactive.« (Source: Legal Medicine)

    Sample collection
    Analysis of blood and urine
    Analysis of hair
    Data collection and analysis
    Ethical considerations
    Age and gender
    Sample collection time
    Assault characteristics
    Toxicological findings

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Denmark | Sex and the law: Sexual assault