Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke


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Start: Alphabetical Index: Author Index: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Unknown

First published: February 1, 2024 - Last updated: February 1, 2024


Authors: Љубинка Шкодрић (Ljubinka Škodrić) and Борис Томанић (Boris Tomanić)

Title: Сексуално насиље и бугарски окупатор у Југославији током Другог светског рата (Seksualno nasilje i bugarski okupator u Jugoslaviji tokom Drugog svetskog rata)

Subtitle: -

Translation: Sexual Violence and the Bulgarian Occupier in Yugoslavia during the Second World War

Journal: Етноантрополошки проблеми (Etnoantropološki problemi) (Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology)

Volume: 18

Issue: 3

Year: 2023 (Received: April 4, 2023, Accepted: May 24, 2023)

Pages: 887-908

pISSN: 0353-1589 - Find a Library: WorldCat | eISSN: 2334-8801 - Find a Library: WorldCat

Language: Serbian

Keywords: Modern History: 20th Century | European History: Bulgarian History, Serbian History | Types: Wartime Sexual Violence / Bulgarian War Crimes during the Second World War


Link: Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology (Free Access)


- Ljubinka Škodrić: Google Scholar, ORCID, ResearchGate,

- Boris Tomanić: ORCID

Abstract: »Sexual violence in a war varies depending on the scale, form and kind of the conflict. The Bulgarian occupation of Serbian and Yugoslav territories in the First and Second World Wars had a lot of similarities both in the form and character of the occupation system, but also in how sexual violence was executed and utilised. During the Second World War, Bulgarian forces committed fewer crimes of this nature than during the First World War. Still, the use of violence and terror in response to resistance remained the same and extremely brutal against the civilians. Rape was even officially proclaimed as one of the ways of reprisal against the population in regions where rebels were active. At the same time, arbitrary attacks against civilians were punished to the greatest extent. During the so-called "punitive expeditions", the number of rapes committed and their cruelty were highly striking. Numerous cases testify that some women were victims of violence repeatedly. The perpettrators considered neither their age nor their social and health status. Moreover, they were frequently exposed to additional humiliation, so it often happened that the rape occurred in front of family members and their closest neighbours or that the raped women were pregnant. The perpetrators of the rape were both soldiers and military officers. Some of them were repeatedly recorded in the post-war testimonies and memories of the victims as multiple culprits of this violence. The post-war recording of committed crimes of rape, which was carried out for a peace conference, although insufficiently reliable, provides illustrative data on the use of sexual violence in the war. It also testifies to the politicisation and instrumentalisation of these crimes both in war and in peace.« (Source: Етноантрополошки проблеми)

  Рат и сексуално насиље (p. 887)
  Бугарски окупатор у Југославији (1941–1944) (p. 892)
  Злочини сексуалног насиља и његове главне карактеристике (p. 893)
  Нумеричко одређивање злочина (p. 900)
  Закључак (p. 904)
  Референце (p. 905)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Bulgaria / Bulgaria during World War II | History of Europe: History of Serbia / Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia | Sex and the law: Wartime sexual violence / Wartime sexual violence in World War II | War: World War II / Axis war crimes in Yugoslavia