Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

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First published: August 1, 2023 - Last updated: August 1, 2023


Author: Hanna Centerskog

Title: GBV and CRSV In the War Against Ukraine

Subtitle: "The battle is both armed and on women's bodies, as it always is" (Interview, Förberg, 2023)

Thesis: Independent Thesis, Uppsala Universitet (Uppsala University)

Advisor: Mudar Shakra

Year: 2023

Pages: 43pp.

Language: English

Keywords: Modern History: 21st Century | European History: Ukrainian History, Russian History | Types: Wartime Sexual Violence / Russo-Ukrainian War


Link: DiVA: Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet (Free Access)


Abstract: »In 2022 Russia illegally invaded Ukraine starting a full-scale war against the country. The war has had severe humanitarian concerns for the civilian population, one of the consequences being increased levels of GBV and CRSV. This research paper analyzes the implications of GBV and the use of CRSV in the war against Ukraine, exploring vulnerable groups and pre-existing patriarchal structures affecting those exposed to the violence. The paper also explores challenges and ways to respond to these issues, providing recommendations to humanitarian and international actors supporting Ukraine in responding to these issues. This qualitative study is based on interviews with professionals working for humanitarian and international organizations in or with Ukraine in the fields of GBV, CRSV and gender providing knowledge on the situation on the ground and insights into local culture and norms, as well as secondary data.
The conducted research shows that women and girls are a vulnerable group towards different forms of GBV, such as domestic violence and trafficking in times of war and peace, and CRSV, such as rape. Pre-existing patriarchal structures and traditional norms increases the threat towards women and girls being exposed to violence committed by men. It also indicates that the levels of GBV and CRSV, with violence in different forms such as domestic violence, trafficking, and rape, has increased since the escalation of the war, and that the rate of GBV will continue to increase after the war ends. Recommendations to humanitarian and international actors include working localized and focusing on the re-building of systems responding to GBV that existed prior to the war, promoting a survivor-centered approach in meeting survivors through training of staff, and raising awareness around GBV, CRSV, patriarchal structures and mental health to prevent violence against women and girls in the long-term.« (Source: Thesis)

  Abstract (p. 2)
  List of Abbreviations (p. 3)
  1. Introduction (p. 6)
    1.1 Background (p. 6)
    1.2 Justification (p. 7)
    1.3 Research questions (p. 7)
    1.4 Previous academic research (p. 8)
      1.4.1 Context (p. 8)
      1.4.2 Types of GBV and CRSV (p. 9)
      1.4.3 Consequences of GBV and CRSV (p. 10)
      1.4.4 Responding to GBV and CRSV (p. 11)
    1.5 Identified gaps (p. 13)
  2. Methodology (p. 14)
    2.1 Research design (p. 14)
    2.2 Primary sources (p. 14)
    2.3 Secondary sources (p. 15)
    2.4 Limitations (p. 16)
    2.5 Ethical considerations (p. 16)
  3. Conceptual Frameworks (p. 17)
    3.1 A feminist lens (p. 17)
    3.2 Gender-based violence (p. 19)
    3.3 Conflict-related sexual violence (p. 19)
  4. Empirical findings and discussion (p. 21)
    4.1 Women and girls as a vulnerable group (p. 21)
    4.2 The use of CRSV and GBV (p. 24)
      CRSV (p. 24)
      GBV (p. 25)
    4.3 Responding to CRSV and GBV (p. 26)
    4.4 Recommendations to humanitarian and international actors (p. 28)
      4.4.1 Recommendation 1: Re-building pre-existing systems and localizing efforts (p. 28)
      4.4.2 Recommendation 2: Survivor-centered approach (p. 30)
      4.4.3 Recommendation 3: Long-term prevention through awareness raising (p. 31)
  5. Conclusion (p. 33)
  6. Bibliography (p. 35)
  7. Appendices (p. 40)
    7.1 Interview consent form (p. 40)
    7.2 Interview guide (p. 40)
    7.3 Interview participants (p. 42)

Wikipedia: History of Europe: History of Ukraine / Modern history of Ukraine | History of Europe: History of Russia / History of Russia (1991-present) | Sex and the law: Rape / Wartime sexual violence | War / Russo-Ukrainian War / Russian war crimes