Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke

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Start: Topical Index: Representations: Films:

Representations: Films:
20TH-CENTURY FILMS

Titles:


F i l m s :

--- A: 8MM, Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls, The Accused, Akai Satsui, Alien, All-American Girl: The Mary Kay Letourneau Story, American History X, Ángel de fuego, Angel of Darkness, Ankush, Anna Christie (1923), Anna Christie (1930), Araddhana, ¡Átame!

--- B: The Baby of Mâcon, Basic Instinct, Bawander, The Birth of a Nation, Bittere Ernte, Blackmail, Blackrock, The Blue Gardenia, Body and Soul, Boudica: Warrior Queen, Boys Don't Cry, The Brandon Teena Story, Breaking the Waves, Broken Blossoms, Die Büchse der Pandora

--- C: Cannibal Holocaust, Carne trémula, Cape Fear, La casa sperduta nel parco, Casualties of War, The Cell, Cerimony, Cet obscur objet du désir, Un chien andalou, Chronik eines Mordes, Clash of the Titans (1981), A Clockwork Orange, The Color Purple, The Cranes are Flying, Cruel Story of Youth, Cruising, The Crying Game

--- D: Damaged Goods, Damini, Deconstructing Harry, Deliverance, Divided We Fall, La domenica del diavolo, Doru?ak sa ?avolom, Dushman

--- E: Emanuelle e Françoise le sorelline, Es geschah am hellichten Tag, Etihaas Konya, Extremities

--- F: Fenkuang de daijia, Freeway, Freeze Me, Full Metal Jacket

--- G: The General’s Daughter, G.I. Jane, Giorni d’amore, Gone with the Wind

--- H: Happiness, Heaven & Earth, Hei lou gu hun, House on the Edge of the Park, Hunter's Blood

--- I: I Spit on Your Grave (1978), In nome delle legge, Insaaf Ka Tarazu, Ilsa, She Wolf of the SS

--- J: Jak by? kochan?, Je t?eba zabít Sekala, Johnny Belinda, Jungfrukällan, The Jungle

--- K: Kids, Kika, The Klansman

--- L: Lang ist der Weg, The Last House on the Left (1972), The Last Seduction, Last Year at Marienbad, Lipstick, Lisice, The Lodger, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, Lolita (1962), Lolita (1997), The Lover, La lupa mannara

--- M: M, Magic Woman M, The Man Left His Will on Film, Markova: Comfort Gay, The Marquise of O, Matador, Me, Myself & Irene, Megher Onek Rong, Mirch Masala, La moglie piu bella, Mona Lisa, Mourir à tue-tête, Ms. 45, Mutters Courage, My Father's House

--- N: Newland, Nihon shunka-ko, Ningen no j?ken

--- O: o.k., One More River, Ora Egaro Jon

--- P: Pai mao nü, Pasqualino Settebellezze, A Passage to India, The Pawnbroker, Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón, Perfume de violetas, Pierscionek z orlem w koronie, Platoon, Il portiere di notte, Positive I.D., Pretty Woman, Pulp Fiction

--- R: Raakh, La ragazza con la pistola, Ragazzi fuori, Rangbaz, Rape, Rape and Marriage, The Rape of Richard Beck, Rashomon, The Red Kimono, Ressurrection (1931), The Rookie

--- S: Sanctuary, Saturday Night Fever, Schindler's List, Die schwarze Pest, Die schwarze Schmach, Sedotta e abbandonata, Sergeant Rutledge, La settima donna, Sex Demon Queen, Si qi lin jin, Les Silences du Palais, La Sindrome di Stendhal, Sleepers, Sterne, The Story of Temple Drake, Strange Days, Straw Dogs

--- T: Tacones lejanos, Tagebuch einer Verlorenen, Teesri Manzil, Tel Aviv-Berlin, Thriller – en grym film, A Time to Kill, Titus, Titus Andronicus, To Kill a Mockingbird, Top?zu, Touch of Evil, Trädgårdsmästaren, Train to Pakistan

--- U: Uloga moje porodice u svjetskoj revoluciji, L'ultima orgia del III Reich, L'ultimo treno della notte

--- V: The Viking Queen, Viridiana

--- W: Das Wachsfigurenkabinett, Weekend, Welcome to the Dollhouse, White Fantasies/Black Power, White Jasmine, Wild Things, Within Our Gates, Whore, Women's Teishin-tai, Wooden Gun. Wrota Europy

--- Y: Yang Nai-wu yü Hsiao Pai-ts'ai

--- Z: Zakhmi Aurat, Zeugin aus der Hölle



[Info] Aebischer, Pascale. Shakespeare's Violated Bodies: Stage and Screen Performance. Cambridge 2004.

[Info] Brinkema, Eugenie. »The lady van(qu)ishes. Interiority, abjection, and the function of rape in horror films.« Para-doxa No. 20 (2006): 33-65.

[Info] Cole, Rachel. »For mature audiences: Australian media classification and sexual violence on screen from 1983 to 1995.« Continuum (June 16, 2020).

[Info] Faulstich, Werner, et al., eds. Sex und Gewalt im Spielfilm der 70er und 80er Jahre: 1. Lüneburger Kolloquium zur Medienwissenschaft. Bardowick 1991.

[Info] Frayling, Christopher. »The House that Jack Built: Some Stereotypes of the Rapist in the History of Popular Culture.« Rape: An Historical and Social Enquiry. Edited by Sylvana Tomaselli et al. Oxford 1986: 174-215.

[Info] Grossman, Andrew. »Against pleasure, against identification. Feminism, cultural atheism, and the tragic subject (part one).« Brights lights film journal No. 47 (2005).

[Info] Grossman, Andrew. »Against pleasure, against identification. Feminism, cultural atheism, and the tragic subject (part two).« Brights lights film journal No. 50 (2005).

[Info] Gruner, Elliott. »Rape and captivity.« Jump cut No. 39 (1994): 51-56.

[Info] Hardersen, Tonje. »Kvinnene som ser rødt.« Z No. 67 (1999): 6-11.

[Info] Koch, Angela. »Ir/réversible. Audiovisuelle Codierung von sexueller Gewalt im Film.« Sex/ismus und Medien. Edited by Kerstin Knopf et al. Herbolzheim 2007: 139-164.

[Info] Koch, Angela. »Performing Sexual Violence: Zum Erscheinen der Bedeutung von sexueller Gewalt im Film.« Performativität und Performance: Geschlecht in Musik, Theater und MedienKunst. Edited by Martina Oster et al. Hamburg 2008: 76-87.

[Info] Sabelus, Esther. Die weiße Sklavin: Mediale Inszenierungen von Sexualität und Großstadt um 1900. Berlin 2009.

[Info] Shrock, Joel. »Desperate deeds, desperate men. Gender, race, and rape in silent feature films, 1915-1927.« Journal of men’s studies 6 (1997): 69-89.

[Info] Sigurdson, Erika R. »Violence and Historical Authenticity: Rape (and Pillage) in Popular Viking Fiction.« Scandinavian Studies 86 (2014): 249-267.

[Info] Slade, Joseph W. »Violence in the hard-core pornographic film. A historical survey.« Journal of communication 34 (1984): 148-163.


[Site] G e n e r a l

[Info] Andrews, David. »The rape-revenge film: biocultural implications.« Jump Cut No. 54 (2012).

[Info] Andrews, David. »Reconsidering the Body Genre: Rape-Revenge and Postfeminist Softcore as Biocultural Phenomena.« Alphaville No. 7 (2014).

[Info] Bartrop, Paul R. »Genocide, Rape, and the Movies.« Rape: Weapon of War and Genocide. St. Paul 2012: 177-194.

[Info] Brinkema, Eugenie. »Rape and the rectum. Bersani, Deleuze, Noé.« Camera obscura 20 (2005): 33-57.

[Info] Büsser, Martin. Lustmord – Mordlust. Das Sexualverbrechen als ästhetisches Sujet im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert. Mainz 2000.

[Info] Cobb, Shelley. »Jane Campion's Women's Films: Art Cinema and the Postfeminist Rape Narrative.« Rape in Art Cinema. Edited by Dominique Russell. New York 2010: 99- .

[Info] Döring, Nicola. »Linda Williams’ „Hard Core“: Der Klassiker der Pornografie-Forschung wird 30 Jahre alt.« Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung 32 (2019): 39-47.

[Info] Harper, Stephen. Screening Bosnia: Geopolitics, Gender and Nationalism in Film and Television Images of the 1992-95 War. London 2017.

[Info] Heller-Nicholas, Alexandra. Rape-Revenge Films: A Critical Study. Jefferson 2011.

[Info] Koch, Angela. »Das „unsägliche“ Verbrechen - sexuelle Gewalt im Film.« Geschlecht als Tabu. Orte Dynamiken und Funktionen. Berlin 2006.

[Info] Koch, Angela. »Visualität und Schuld. Performing sexual violence.« Performativität und Performance. Geschlecht in Musik, Bildender Kunst, Theater und Neuen Medien. Hildesheim 2007.

[Info] Kotthaus, Jochem, ed. Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Weinheim 2015.

[Info] Kotthaus, Jochem. »Vorwort. Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 7-12.

[Info] Laberge, Yves. »Films, foreign.« Encyclopedia of rape. Edited by Merril D. Smith. Westport 2004: 74-76.

[Info] Mielonen, Nalle. Kostaja Pimeydestä: Naiskuva rape-revenge-elokuvissa. Opinnäytetyö, Tampereen Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2011.

[Info] Nummela, Mari. Raiskaus valkokankaalla: Seksuaalisen väkivallan estetiikka fiktioelokuvassa. Opinnäytetyö, Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2014.

[Info] Plessow, Oliver. »Sexualisierte Kriegsgewalt in Geschichtsspielfilmen: Mediale Herausforderungen und Potenziale für historisches Lernen.« Zeitschrift für Geschichtsdidaktik 19 (2020): 30-44.

[Info] Reifenberger, Julia. Girls with Guns. Rape & Revenge Movies: Radikalfeministische Ermächtigungsfantasien? Berlin 2013.

[Info] Reifenberger, Julia. »»Kill your rapist!« Der Rape-Revenge-Film als genderpolitisches Verwirrstück. Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 82-105.

[Info] Reuter, Ingo. »Religion, das Übernatürliche und sexuelle Gewalt.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 225-242.

[Info] Russell, Dominique. »Introduction: Why Rape?« Rape in Art Cinema. Edited by Dominique Russell. New York 2010: 1-12.

[Info] Russell, Dominique, ed. Rape in Art Cinema. New York 2010.

[Info] Soko?owska-Pary?, Marzena. »War Rape: Trauma and the Ethics of Representation.« Traumatic Memories of the Second World War and After. Edited by Peter Leese et al. Houndmills 2016: 223-244.

[Info] Stiglegger, Marcus. »Film als existenzielle Erfahrung. Zur Phänomenologie des Terrorkinos.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 60-81.

[Info] Vitanza, Victor J. Chaste Cinematics. New York 2015.

[Info] Wagner, Hedwig. »Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Überlegungen zum Darstellungsaspekt von Sexualität und zu möglichen Filmlektüren.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 43-57.

[Info] Wesley, Marilyn C. »Reverence, rape, resistance. Joyce Carol Oates and feminist film theory.« Mosaic 32 (1999): 75-85.

[Info] Wright, Katie. »Speaking Out: Representations of Childhood and Sexual Abuse in the Media, Memoir and Public Inquiries.« Red Feather Journal 7 (2016): 17-30.


[Site] A m e r i c a n   F i l m s

[Site] Brazilian Films


[Site] Canadian Films

Films: Stereo


[Site] U.S. Films

[Info] Bächler, Maja. »Sexuelle Gewalt im Kriegsfilm.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 106-126.

[Info] Barker, Deborah E. »Representing the Southern Rape Complex in Literature and Film.« From the Blank Page to the Silver Screen: Film Adaptations in the English Speaking World. Lorient 2006.

[Info] Barron, Martin, et al. »Sexual Violence in Three Pornographic Media: Toward a Sociological Explanation.« Journal of Sex Research 37 (2000): 161-168.

[Info] Barron, Martin, et al. »Sexual Violence in Three Pornographic Media: Toward a Sociological Explanation.« Sexualities: Identities, Behaviors, and Society. Edited by Michael S. Kimmel et al. Oxford 2004: 343-354.

[Info] Berridge, Susan. »Personal Problems and Women's Issues: Episodic sexual violence narratives in US teen drama series.« Feminist Media Studies 11 (2011): 467-481.

[Info] Borgedahl, Oscar M., et al. Våldtäkt i Hollywoods krigsfilmer: Har representationen av orsaken till våldtäkt i krig ändrats i Hollywoods krigsfilmer mellan perioden före 1980-talet och den efter 1980-talet? Självständigt arbete på grundnivå, Högskolan Väst, 2017.

[Info] Borgedahl, Oscar M., et al. »Rape in Hollywood Combat Movies: Representations of the Causes of Wartime Rape.« Rape Cultures and Survivors: An International Perspective. Vol. 1. Edited by Tuba Inal et al. Santa Barbara 2018: 101-138.

[Info] Brinson, Susan L. »The use and opposition of rape myths in prime-time television dramas.« Sex roles 27 (1992): 359-375.

[Info] Cerabino-Hess, Elizabeth. On nation and violation. Representations of rape in popular theatre and film of the "Progressive Era". Dissertation, New York University, 1997.

[Info] Chasteen, Amy L. Rape narratives in the United States. Feminism, culture and the construction of rape as a social problem. Ann Arbor 1998.

[Info] Clover, Carol. »Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film.« Representations No. 20 (1987): 187-228.

[Info] Clover, Carol. »High and low. The transformation of the rape-revenge movie.« Women and film. A sight and sound reader. Edited by Pam Cook et al. London 1993: 76-85.

[Info] Conolly-Smith, Peter. »Race-ing Rape: Representations of Sexual Violence in American Combat Films.« War & Society 32 (2013): 233-251.

[Info] Cuklanz, Lisa M. »The Masculine Ideal: Rape on Prime-Time Television, 1976-1978.« Critical Studies in Mass Communication 15 (1998): 423-448.

[Info] Cuklanz, Lisa M. Rape on Prime Time: Televison, Masculinity, and Sexual Violence. Philadelphia 2000.

[Info] Dutta, Mary B. »Taming the victim. Rape in soap opera.« Journal of popular film and television 27 (1999): 34-39.

[Info] Eigenberg, Helen M., et al. »If You Drop the Soap in the Shower You Are On Your Own: Images of Male Rape in Selected Prison Movies.« Sexuality & Culture 7 (2003): 56-89.

[Info] Finley, Laura L. »Rape Films.« Violence in Popular Culture: American and Global Perspectives. Edited by Laura L. Finley. Santa Barbara 2019: 83-85.

[Info] Fishbein, Leslie. »The fallen woman as victim in early American film. Soma versus psyche.« Film & history 17 (1987): 50-61.

[Info] Gray, Katherine L. "Didn't your mommy tell you that isn't nice?" Patterns and shifts in rape-revenge films, 1973-1998. Honors Project, Smith College, 2009.

[Info] Gustafsson-Wood, Isaac. Male rape in film comedy: Representations in contemporary Hollywood. Doctoral Thesis, University of Southampton, 2019.

[Info] Haskell, Molly. From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies. New York 1974.

[Info] Haskell, Molly. From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies. Chicago 1987.

[Info] Jeffords, Susan. »Rape and the Winter soldier.« Viet-nam generation 5 (1994): 152-154.

[Info] Jimenez Murguía, Salvador, et al, eds. The Encyclopedia of Sexism in American Films. Lanham 2020.

[Info] Kimmel, Michael S., et al. »Sexual Violence in Three Pornographic Media: Toward a Sociological Explanation.« The Gender of Desire: Essays on Male Sexuality. By Michael S. Kimmel. Albany 2005: 97-110.

[Info] Laberge, Yves, et al. »Films, U.S.« Encyclopedia of rape. Edited by Merril D. Smith. Westport 2004: 76-78.

[Info] Leff, Leonard J. »What in the world interests women? Hollywood, postwar America, and Johnny BelindaJournal of American studies 31 (1997): 385-405.

[Info] Lehman, Peter. »‘Don’t blame this on a girl’. Female rape-revenge films.« Screening the male. Exploring masculinities in Hollywood cinema. Edited by Steven Cohan et al. London 1993: 103-117.

[Info] Levine, Elana. »From Romance to Rape: Sex, Violence, and Soap Operas in the 1970s.« Annual Conference of the Society for Cinema Studies. Denver 2002.

[Info] Levine, Elana H. Wallowing in sex. American television and everyday life in the 1970s. Ann Arbor 2002.

[Info] Levine, Elana. »Doing Soap Opera History: Romance and Rape in the 1970s.« Gender and Genre. Evanston 2007.

[Info] Levine, Elana H. Wallowing in sex. The new sexual culture of 1970s American television. Durham 2007.

[Info] Mailänder Koslov, Elissa. »The Aesthetization and Sexualization of Nazi Violence in US and Italian Camp Atrocity Movies (1969-1979).« 11th Biennial Lessons and Legacies Conference. Boca Raton 2010.

[Info] Murphy, Katherine J. »Analyzing Women’s Representation in the Health Care Field on American Television from 1965–2019.« Midwest Journal of Undergraduate Research No. 12 (2021): 68-97.

[Info] Pinkowitz, Jacqueline. »'Rape and Race': Exposing/Exploiting Slavery's Monstrous Intimacies in Late 1960s and Early 1970s Slavery Exploitation Films.« 59th Annual Conference of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies. Toronto 2018.

[Info] Prince, Stephen R. Power, Pain, and Pleasure in Pornography: A Content Analysis of Pornographic Feature Films, 1972-1985. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1987.

[Info] Projansky, Sarah. Working on Feminism: Film and Television Rape Narratives and Postfeminist Culture. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Iowa, 1995.

[Info] Projansky, Sarah. Watching rape. Film and television in postfeminist culture. New York 2001.

[Info] Projansky, Sarah. »The elusive/ubiquitous representation of rape. A historical survey of rape in U.S. film, 1903-1972.« Cinema journal 41 (2001): 63-90.

[Info] Raby, Daniel. Leatherface in Love: Sexuality and Gender in Horror Films. Honors Thesis, American University, 2011.

[Info] Read, Jacinda. Narratives of Transformation: Feminism, Femininity and the Rape-Revenge Cycle. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Warwick, 1998.

[Info] Read, Jacinda. The new avengers: Feminism, femininity and the rape-revenge cycle. Manchester 2000.

[Info] Ritzer, Ivo. »Diktatur der Bilder: Zur medienkulturellen Symptomatik der Repräsentation von Sex und Gewalt in TV-Serien des US-amerikanischen ›Qualitätsfernsehens‹.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 150-168.

[Info] Schubart, Rikke. Super Bitches and Action Babes: The Female Hero in Popular Cinema, 1970-2006. Jefferson 2007.

[Info] Sharp, Elaine B., et al. »Individual and contextual effects on attributions about pornography.« Journal of politics 63 (2001): 501-519.

[Info] Sood, Asmita, et al. »Television Representations of Sexual Violence.« Talking Research (January 15, 2021).

[Info] Stuhldreher, Karen. »State rape. Representations of rape in Viet Nam.« Viet Nam generation 5 (1994): 155-158.

[Info] Taylor, Steven. »Conceptualizing Consent: An Analysis of Viewer Interpretations of Sexual Violence in Film, 1971-2020.« 77th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. Atlanta 2022.

[Info] Telotte, J.P. »A fate worse than death. Racism, transgression, and Westerns.« Journal of popular film and television 26 (1998): 120-127.

[Info] Tischler, Nancy M. »‘Tiger – tiger!’ Blanche’s rape on screen.« Magical muse. Millennial essays on Tennessee Williams. Edited by Ralph F. Voss. Tuscaloosa 2002: 50-69.

[Info] Vihanto, Joonas. Tabuaiheiden käsittely amerikkalaisissa draamasarjoissa 1980-luvulta nykypäivään. Opinnäytetyö, Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu, 2014.


[Site] A s i a n   F i l m s

[Site] Bangladeshi Films

[Info] Akhter, Fahmida. Fragmented memory, incomplete history: Women and nation in war films of Bangladesh. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Essex, 2017.

[Info] Chowdhury, Elora H. »Ethical Reckoning: Gender, Vulnerability and Agency in Bangladeshi Liberation War Film.« Annual Meeting of the National Women's Studies Association. San Francisco 2019.

[Info] Hoek, Lotte. »Cut-Pieces as Stag Film: Bangladeshi Pornography in Action Cinema.« Third Text 24 (2010): 135-148.


[Site] Chinese Films

[Info] Luo, Echo T. »????????: ???????????.« ????? No. 57 (1998): 159-190.


[Site] Indian Films

Films: Earth

[Info] Ramasubramanian, Srividya, et al. »Portrayals of Sexual Violence in Popular Hindi Films, 1997–99.« Sex Roles 48 (2003): 327-336.

[Info] Shrivastava, Nidhi. »Mass Rapes during the 1947 Partition and its Representation or Silencing in Hindi Cinema.« 51st Annual Convention of the Northeast Modern Language Association. Boston 2020.


[Site] Israeli Films

[Info] Meiri, Sandra. »The Ethical Function of Representing Sexualised Violence against Women during the Holocaust in Israeli Narrative Cinema.« 5th Annual Conference on Israel Studies. London 2016.


[Site] Japanese Films

[Info] Briciu, Bianca O. The Cinema of the Victim: Gender and Collective Trauma in the Postwar Japanse Woman's Film. M.A. Thesis, Carleton University, 2008.

[Info] Choi, Eun S. »?? ?? ? ‘???’ ??? ?? ?? ??: ???? ??? ????.« ????? No. 58 (2019): 83-100.


[Site] Korean Films

[Info] Álvarez, María del Pilar. Memoria histórica y poscolonialismo en Corea del Sur: Los usos del pasado en el nuevo cine documental. Buenos Aires 2015.

[Info] Choi, Eun S. »?? ?? ? ‘???’ ??? ?? ?? ??: ???? ??? ????.« ????? No. 58 (2019): 83-100.


[Site] Thai Films

[Info] Townsend, Rebecca. »Prisoner of love: Sexual violence on Thai television.« Critical Asian Studies 48 (2016): 579-596.


[Site] E u r o p e a n   F i l m s

[Site] General

[Info] Lewis, Ingrid. The representation of women in European holocaust films: Perpetrators, victims and resisters. Ph.D. Thesis, Dublin City University, 2015.

[Info] Lewis, Ingrid. Women in European Holocaust Films: Perpetrators, Victims and Resisters. Cham 2017.


[Site] Belgian Films


[Site] French Films

Films: Baise-Moi


[Site] German Films

[Info] Evans, Jennifer V. »'The Murderers Are Among Us': Martial Rape and Public Memory in Postwar German Film, 1944-1958.« 77th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Historical Association. Ottawa 1998.

[Info] Garraio, Júlia. »The Western way is the German way: Contemporary German films revisit allied wartime violence.« Filologia, Memória e Esquecimento. Edited by Fernanda Mota Alves et al. Ribeirão 2010.

[Info] Guger, Astrid. Frauen als Opfer der Shoah und ihre Darstellung im deutschsprachigen Spielfilm. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, 2008.

[Info] Lindner, Martin. »Der Mythos ›Lustmord‹. Serienmörder in der deutschen Literatur, dem Film und der bildenden Kunst zwischen 1892 und 1932.« Verbrechen, Justiz, Medien. Konstellationen in Deutschland von 1900 bis zur Gegenwart. Edited by Joachim Linder et al. Tübingen 1999: 273-305.

[Info] Smith, Sabine H. Sexual violence in German culture. Recreading and rewriting the tradition. Frankfurt/ Main 1998.

[Info] von Gottberg, Joachim. »Die Darstellung sexueller Gewalt. Rechtliche Grenzen im Strafrecht und Jugendschutzrecht.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 25-42.


[Site] Italian Films

[Info] Mailänder Koslov, Elissa. »The Aesthetization and Sexualization of Nazi Violence in US and Italian Camp Atrocity Movies (1969-1979).« 11th Biennial Lessons and Legacies Conference. Boca Raton 2010.

[Info] Stiglegger, Marcus. »Sadiconazista – Stereotypisierung des Holocaust im italienischen SS-Sexploitationfilm.« Zwangsprostitution und Krieg im 20. und beginnenden 21. Jahrhundert. Fürstenberg/Havel 2007.


[Site] Romanian Films

[Info] Popescu, Monica. »Cultural liminality and hybridity. The Romanian "transition".« Kroeber Anthropological Society papers No. 86 (2001): 47-67.


[Site] Serbian Films

Featue Films: Bube u glavi, Horoskop, Povratak


[Site] Spanish Films


[Site] O c e a n i a n   F i l m s

[Site] Australian Films

[Info] Heller-Nicholas, Alexandra. »Fair Games and Wasted Youth: Twenty-five Years of Australian Rape-Revenge Film (1986-2011).« Metro Magazine No. 170 (2011): 86-89.