Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke

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Start: Topical Index: Types: Sexual Assault: Wartime Sexual Violence:

Types: Sexual Assault:
WARTIME SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

[Site] G e n e r a l

Wars: First World War (1914-1918), Second World War (1939-1945), Asia-Pacific War (1941-1945)

[Info] Adams, Alexandra. Der Tatbestand der Vergewaltigung im Völkerstrafrecht. Berlin 2013.

[Info] Agirre Aranburu, Xabier. »Sexual Violence beyond Resonable Doubt: Using Pattern Evidence and Analysis for International Cases.« Law & Social Inquiry 35 (2010): 855-879.

[Info] Agirre Aranburu, Xabier. »Sexual Violence beyond Resonable Doubt: Using Pattern Evidence and Analysis for International Cases.« Leiden Journal of International Law 23 (2010): 609-627.

[Info] Agirre-Aranburu, Xabier. »La violencia sexual más allá de toda duda razonable: El uso de prueba y análisis de patrones en casos internacionales.« Revista Estudios Socio-Jurídicos 13 (2011): 11-42.

[Info] Alison, Miranda. »Wartime sexual violence: women’s human rights and questions of masculinity.« Review of International Studies 33 (2007): 75-90.

[Info] Alison, Miranda. »Sexuelle Gewalt in Zeiten des Kriegs. Menschenrechte für Frauen und Vorstellungen von Männlichkeit.« Krieg und Geschlecht. Sexuelle Gewalt im Krieg und Sex-Zwangsarbeit in NS-Konzentrationslagern. Edited by Insa Eschebach et al. Berlin 2008: 35-54.

[Info] Alison, Miranda, et al. »"Meine Not ist nicht einzig": Sexuelle Gewalt in kriegerischen Konflikten. Ein Werkstattgespräch.« Mittelweg 36 18 (2009): 3-25.

[Info] Altinay, Ay?e G., et al., eds. Gendered Wars, Gendered Memories: Feminist Conversations on War, Genocide and Political Violence. London 2016.

[Info] Altunjan, Tanja. Reproductive Violence and International Criminal Law. The Hague 2021.

[Info] Amorin, Britta, et al., eds. Zeit zu sprechen: Sexualisierte Gewalt in Kriegen und Konflikten. Cologne 2009.

[Info] Apperley, Harry. »Hidden victims: a call to action on sexual violence against men in conflict.« Medicine, Conflict and Survival 31 (2015): 92-99.

[Info] Askin, Kelly D. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. The Hague 1997.

[Info] Ba, I., et al. »Physical, mental and social consequences in civilians who have experienced war-related sexual violence: A systematic review (1981–2014).« Public Health 142 (2017): 121-135.

[Info] Bächler, Maja. »Sexuelle Gewalt im Kriegsfilm.« Sexuelle Gewalt im Film. Edited by Jochem Kotthaus. Weinheim 2015: 106-126.

[Info] Ball, Christine. »Women, Rape, and War: Patriarchal Functions and Ideologies.« Atlantis 12 (1986): 83-91.

[Info] Barstow, Anne L. »The United Nations' Role in Defining War Crimes Against Women.« War's Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against Women. Edited by Anne L. Barstow. Cleveland 2000: 234-242.

[Info] Barstow, Anne L., ed. War's Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against Women. Cleveland 2000.

[Info] Bastick, Megan, et al. Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector. Geneva 2007.

[Info] Battistelli, Fabrizio. »Guerrieri ingiusti: Inconscio maschile, organizzazione militare e società nelle violenze alle donne in guerra.« Stupri di guerra: La violenza di massa contro le donne nel Novecento. Edited by Marcello Flores. Milan 2010: 17-39.

[Info] Bianchi, Bruna. »Introduzione.« Deportate, esuli, profughe No. 10 (2009): i-xvi.

[Info] Borgedahl, Oscar M., et al. Våldtäkt i Hollywoods krigsfilmer: Har representationen av orsaken till våldtäkt i krig ändrats i Hollywoods krigsfilmer mellan perioden före 1980-talet och den efter 1980-talet? Självständigt arbete på grundnivå, Högskolan Väst, 2017.

[Info] Borgedahl, Oscar M., et al. »Rape in Hollywood Combat Movies: Representations of the Causes of Wartime Rape.« Rape Cultures and Survivors: An International Perspective. Vol. 1. Edited by Tuba Inal et al. Santa Barbara 2018: 101-138.

[Info] Bos, Pascale. »A Monument to Rape: Sexual Violence in National Memorial Cultures.« Cultures of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts. London 2014.

[Info] Boyd, Rosalind, ed. The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-Responsive Human Security. Farnham 2014.

[Info] Boyd, Rosalind, ed. The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-Responsive Human Security. London 2016.

[Info] Braig, Katharina. »Compensation for Victims of Sexual Violence During Armed Conflicts.« Joint Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association and the Research Committee on Sociology of Law. Berlin 2007.

[Info] Branche, Raphaëlle, et al., eds. Viols en temps de guerre. Paris 2011.

[Info] Branche, Raphaëlle, et al., eds. Rape in Wartime. Basingstoke 2012.

[Info] Branche, Raphaëlle. »Le viol, une arme de guerre ?« Une histoire de la guerre du XIXe siècle à nos jours. Edited by Bruno Cabanes. Paris 2018: 591-603.

[Info] Buchowska, Natalia. »Violated or protected: Women's rights in armed conflicts after Second World War.« International Comparative Jurisprudence (December 28, 2016).

[Info] Buis, Emiliano J. »War crimes.« Encyclopedia of rape. Edited by Merril D. Smith. Westport 2004: 268-269.

[Info] Burkhardt, Sven-U. Vergewaltigung als Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit. Sexualisierte Gewalt, Makrokriminalität und Völkerstrafrecht. Münster 2005.

[Info] Buss, Doris, et al., eds. Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: International Agendas and African Contexts. New York 2014.

[Info] Bussmann, Margit, et al. »Strategie, Anarchie oder fehlendes internationales Engagement? Zur Logik von einseitiger Gewalt« Forschung DSF No. 33 (2012).

[Info] Campbell, Kirsten. »The International Legal Cultures of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict.« Cultures of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts. London 2014.

[Info] Carlsson, Matilda. Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: A Cross-National Comparison of Circumstances Related to State Forces' Use of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts. Master Thesis, Swedish Defence University, 2016.

[Info] Carpenter, R. Charli, ed. Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Bloomfield 2007.

[Info] Carpenter, R. Charli. »Conclusion: Protecting Children Born of War.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Bloomfield 2007: 210-224.

[Info] Carpenter, R. Charli. »Gender, Ethnicity, and Children's Human Rights: Theorizing Babies Born of Wartime Rape and Sexual ExploitationBorn of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Bloomfield 2007: 1-20.

[Info] Chebolu, Lakshmi. »Plight Of Women In War.« Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 2 (2016): 587-593.

[Info] Cheldelin, Sandra. »Victims of Rape and Gendercide: All Wars.« Women Waging War and Peace: International Perspectives of Women's Roles in Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Edited by Sandra I. Cheldelin et al. New York 2011: 12-34.

[Info] Clark, Janine N. »A Crime of Identity: Rape and Its Neglected Victims.« Journal of Human Rights 13 (2014): 146-169.

[Info] Coghlan, Ebba. At war with honour? Feminist perspectives on female honour and the regulation of wartime rape. Bachelor Thesis, Lunds universitet, 2016.

[Info] Cohen, Dara K., et al. Wartime Sexual Violence: Misconceptions, Implications, and Ways Forward. Washington, D.C. 2013.

[Info] Cohen, Dara K., et al. »Sexual violence in armed conflict: Introducing the SVAC dataset, 1989-2009.« Journal of Peace Research 51 (2014): 418-428.

[Info] Cohen, Dara K., et al. »Do States Delegate Shameful Violence to Militias? Patterns of Sexual Violence in Recent Armed Conflicts.« Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (2015): 877-898.

[Info] Conolly-Smith, Peter. »Race-ing Rape: Representations of Sexual Violence in American Combat Films.« War & Society 32 (2013): 233-251.

[Info] Copelon, Rhonda. »Toward Accountability for Violence Against Women in War: Progress and Challenges.« Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights. Edited by Elizabeth D. Heineman. Philadelphia 2011: 232-256.

[Info] Crawford, James G. »Atrocities.« The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Edited by John Whiteclay Chambers II. Oxford 1999: 65-66.

[Info] Crawford, Kerry F. Wartime Sexual Violence: From Silence to Condemnation of a Weapon of War. Washington, D.C. 2017.

[Info] Danielsson, Sarah K., org. War and Sexual Violence Conference. New York 2015.

[Info] Danielsson, Sarah K. »Introduction: War and Sexual Violence – New Perspectives in a New Era.« War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Paderborn 2019: 1-14.

[Info] Danielsson, Sarah K., ed. War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Paderborn 2019.

[Info] Das, Lalit. »Criminal Exploitation of Women.« Women's Worlds 2005: 9th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women. Seoul 2005.

[Info] de Araujo, Beatriz A. »Violência sexual em conflitos armados: História e desfios.« Alabastro 1 (2016): 6-17.

[Info] de Brouwer, Anne-Marie, et al., eds. Sexual Violence as an International Crime: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Cambridge 2013.

[Info] DeLaet, Debra. »Theorizing Justice for Children Born of War.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 128-148.

[Info] Delpha, Isabelle. »Les femmes et le droit (pénal) international.« Clio No. 39 (2014): 183-204.

[Info] Denov, M. »Children born of wartime rape: The intergenerational realities of sexual violence and abuse.« Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 1 (2015): 61-68.

[Info] Díaz Gude, Bernardita F., et al. La violación como crimen de guerra: De Ginebra a Roma. Memoria, Universidad de Chile, 2009.

[Info] Dobroiu, Vlad. »La femme comme champ de bataille de Matéi Visniec: Les actes de violence sexuelle dans les guerres interethniques.« Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Philologica 19 (2018): 143-150.

[Info] Doherty, Teresa. »Sexual Violence in Conflict: Can There Be Justice?« World Bank Legal Review 6 (2015): 299-310.

[Info] Drinck, Barbara, et al. »Vorwort.« Erzwungene Prostitution in Kriegs- und Friedenszeiten. Sexuelle Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen. Edited by Barbara Drinck et al. Bielefeld 2006: 7-15.

[Info] Drinck, Barbara et al. »Foreword.« Forced prostitution in times of war and peace. Sexual violence against women and girls. Edited by Barbara Drinck et al. Bielefeld 2007: 11-19.

[Info] Eifler, Christine. »Nachkrieg und weibliche Verletzbarkeit. Zur Rolle von Kriegen für die Konstruktion von Geschlecht.« Soziale Konstruktionen. Militär und Geschlechterverhältnis. Edited by Christine Eifler et al. Münster 1999: 155-186.

[Info] Farr, Kathryn. »Gender-Based Terrorism.« The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Edited by C. Gus Martin. London 2011: 227-229.

[Info] Flores, Marcello. »Introduzione.« Stupri di guerra. La violenza di massa contro le donne nel Novecento. Edited by Marcello Flores. Milan 2010: 9-15.

[Info] Flores, Marcello, ed. Stupri di guerra. La violenza di massa contro le donne nel Novecento. Milan 2010.

[Info] Fourçans, Claire. »Les violences sexuelles devant les juridictions pénales internationales.« Les viols en temps de guerre: une histoire à écrire - Rape in Wartime: A History to be Written. Paris 2009.

[Info] Freedman, Jane. »Asylum denied: Refusing international protection to the victims of wartime rape.« Les viols en temps de guerre: une histoire à écrire - Rape in Wartime: A History to be Written. Paris 2009.

[Info] Garraio, Júlia. »Vergewaltigung als Waffe des Rassenhasses.« Gewalt und Entfremdung: Literarische und transmediale Übertretungen. Mainz 2015.

[Info] Gendron, Sarah. »"Feminigenocide": Or the Effacement of Women in War.« War, Peace and Internatinoal Order? The Legacies of The Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907. Auckland 2016.

[Info] Gerlach, Christian. Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. Cambridge 2010.

[Info] Gerlach, Christian. Extrem gewalttätige Gesellschaften. Massengewalt im 20. Jahrhundert. Munich 2011.

[Info] Goodhart, Michael. »Children Born of War and Human Rights: Philosophical ReflectionsBorn of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 188-209.

[Info] Green, Jennifer L. Collective rape. A cross-national study of the incidence and perpetrators of mass political sexual violence, 1980-2003. Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006.

[Info] Halley, Janet. »Rape at Rome: Feminist Interventions in the Criminalization of Sex-Related Violence in Positive International Criminal Law.« Michigan Journal of International Law (2008): 1-123.

[Info] Halley, Janet. »Rape in Berlin: Reconsidering the Criminalisation of Rape in the International Law of Armed Conflict.« Melbourne Journal of International Law 9 (2008).

[Info] Halley, Janet. »Vergewaltigung in Berlin: Neue Überlegungen zur Kriminalisierung von Vergewaltigung im Kriegsvölkerrecht.« Kritische Justiz 44 (2011): 196-222.

[Info] Hayden, Robert M. »Rape and rape avoidance in ethno-national conflicts. Sexual violence in liminalized states.« American anthropologist 102 (2000): 27-41.

[Info] Hedlund, Annie. Male Rape: Where are the Male Victims of Sexual Violence in Human Rights? An analysis of UN documents on Sexual Violence against Men. Student Paper, Lund University, 2012.

[Info] Henry, Nicola. »The Fixation on Wartime Rape: Feminist Critique and International Criminal Law.« Social & Legal Studies 23 (2014): 93-111.

[Info] Hodži?, Irma. Adjudication of Gender Based Crimes against Women in International Criminal Courts and Tribunals. Master Thesis, Lunds Universitet, 2012.

[Info] Hoover Green, Amelia. »The commander’s dilemma: Creating and controlling armed group violence.« Journal of Peace Research 53 (2016): 619-632.

[Info] Horstkemper, Gregor. »Plünderung, Vergewaltigung, Massaker. Online-Materialien zu Kriegsverbrechen der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts.« Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 63 (2012): 478-480.

[Info] Houge, Anette B. »Conflict-related Sexual Violence.« Women in War: Examples from Norway and Beyond. Edited by Kjersti Ericsson. Farnham 2015: 71-86.

[Info] Houge, Anette B. »Conflict-related Sexual Violence.« Women in War: Examples from Norway and Beyond. Edited by Kjersti Ericsson. London 2016: 71-86.

[Info] Huang, Junliang. »Wound as Allegory: The Alienation of the Female Body in the Discourse of Wartime Sexual Violence.« Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Denver 2019.

[Info] Hynes, H. Patricia. »On the battlefield of women’s bodies. An overview of the harm of war to women.« Women’s studies international forum 27 (2004): 431-445.

[Info] Inal, Tuba. Development of Global Prohibition Regimes: Pillage and Rape in War. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota, 2008.

[Info] Inal, Tuba. »The Prohibition of Rape and Pillage in War: The Hague Conventions (1899, 1907).« 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Boston 2008.

[Info] Inal, Tuba. »'So What?' The Impact of Legalization on Change on the Ground: Pillage and Rape in War.« 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Washington, D.C. 2010

[Info] ?nal, Tuba. »'So What?' The Impact of Legalization on Change on the Ground: Pillage and Rape in War.« APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper. Edited by Andrea Campbell et al. Washington, D.C. 2010.

[Info] ?nal, Tuba. »Sava? Hukukunda Tecavüz ve Ya?may? Yasakla(ma)yan Rejimler Lahey Sözle?meleri (1899, 1907).« Uluslararas? Iliskiler 8 (2011).

[Info] ?nal, Tuba. Looting and Rape in Wartime: Law and Change in International Relations. Philadelphia 2013.

[Info] Isikozlu, Elvan, et al. Towards a Typology of Wartime Rape. Bonn 2010.

[Info] Ivekovi?, Rada. »Tradurre la violenza di genere.« Deportate, esuli, profughe No. 10 (2009): 144-152.

[Info] Jacob, Frank, ed. Genocide and Mass Violence in Asia: An Introductory Reader. Berlin 2019.

[Info] Jakowitsch, Judith. Die systematische Vergewaltigung von Frauen im Krieg. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, 2000.

[Info] Johansson, Karin, et al. »Sexual violence and biased military interventions in civil conflict.« Conflict Management and Peace Science (February 1, 2017).

[Info] Kalayci, Meryem, et al. »Writing through the silence: History and wartime sexual violence after 100 years.« 'Do No Harm': Researching the Pasts, Present, and Futures of Sexual Violence. London 2023.

[Info] Kalcher, Michaela. »Why Rape? Explaining Different Levels of Sexual Violence in Civil War.« Social & Political Review 28 (2018): 77-84.

[Info] Kaši?, Biljana. »How to radicalize responsibility. Feminism and rape.« Deportate, esuli, profughe No. 10 (2009): 168-180.

[Info] Koenig, K. Alexa, et al. »Contextualizing Sexual Violence Committed During the War on Terror: A Historical Overview of International Accountability.« University of San Francisco Law Review 45 (2011): 911-957.

[Info] Korac, Maja. »Feminists against Sexual Violence in War: The Question of Perpetrators and Victims Revisited.« Social Sciences 7 (2018).

[Info] La Rocca, Simona, ed. Stupri di guerra e violenze di genere. Rome 2015.

[Info] Leatherman, Janie L. Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict. Cambridge 2011.

[Info] Leatherman, Janie L. Violencia sexual y conflictos armados. Barcelona 2014.

[Info] Lilly, J. Robert. »Wartime rape.« Encyclopedia of rape. Edited by Merril D. Smith. Westport 2004: 269-271.

[Info] Lundberg, Jesper. Sexuellt våld som strategi och taktik i väpnade konflikter: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie. Självständigt arbete, Militärhögskolan Karlberg, 2013.

[Info] Mack, Andrew, ed. Human Security Report 2012: Sexual Violence, Education, and War: Beyond the Mainstream Narrative. Vancouver 2012.

[Info] Majewski, Kate. »Historical and Military Cultural Context of Military Sexual Trauma.« Treating Military Sexual Trauma. Edited by Lori S. Katz. New York 2016: 25-42.

[Info] Mann, Carol. »The Instrumentalization of Gender in War.« The Ashgate Research Companion to War: Origins and Prevention. Edited by Hall Gardner et al. Farnham 2012: 455-472.

[Info] Matsui, Yayori. »"History Cannot be Erased, Women Can No Longer be Silenced".« Women's Asia 21 No. 4 (1998): 55-63.

[Info] McEvoy-Levy, Siobhán. »Human Rights Culture and Children Born of Wartime Rape.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 149- .

[Info] McFall, Kelly, et al. »Rape: Weapon of War and Genocide.« New Books in Genocide Studies (2013).

[Info] McGinnis, Rachel. »An Analysis of the ICC's Current Gender Neutral Definition and the Possible Implications on Male Survivors of Sexual Violence.« War and Sexual Violence. New York 2016.

[Info] Meger, Sara. Rape Loot Pillage: The Political Economy of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Oxford 2016.

[Info] Mehrl, Marius. »Female Combatants and Wartime Rape: Reconsidering the Role of Women in Armed Conflict.« Armed Forces & Society (December 28, 2020).

[Info] Mertus, Julie. »Key Ethical Inquiries for Future Research.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 180-187.

[Info] Meyer, Leisa D. »Gender and War.« The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Edited by John Whiteclay Chambers II. Oxford 1999: 289-292.

[Info] Mischowski, Gabriela. »„Justitias Mühlen mahlen langsam“. Die Internationale Strafverfolgung geschlechtsbezogener sexualisierter Kriegsgewalt seit Nürnberg.« 60 Jahre nach Nürnberg: Der Kampf gegen die Straflosigkeit vor neuen Herausforderungen. Nuremberg 2006.

[Info] Mischkowski, Gabriela. »"Ob es den Frauen selbst irgendetwas bringt, bleibt eine offene Frage". Gabriela Mischkowski, Referentin für Gender Justice bei medica mondiale e.V., im Gespräch über die Probleme und Zwickmühlen der internationalen Strafgerichtsbarkeit.« Krieg und Geschlecht. Sexuelle Gewalt im Krieg und Sex-Zwangsarbeit in NS-Konzentrationslagern. Edited by Insa Eschebach et al. Berlin 2008: 229-247.

[Info] Mochmann, Ingvill C. »Children Born of War.« Revista Obets No. 2 (2008): 53-61.

[Info] Möller, Christina. »Die historische Entwicklung des tatbestandlichen Verbots der Kriegsvergewaltigung und anderer Formen sexueller Gewalt im Völker- und Völkerstrafrecht.« Juristische Zeitgeschichte 4 (2002-03): 480-506.

[Info] Mühlhäuser, Regina. »Vergewaltigung und sexuelle Versklavung in der Internationalen Strafgerichtsbarkeit.« Militär und Geschlecht im Wandel. Hamburg 2003.

[Info] Mühlhäuser, Regina. »Sexuelle Gewalt als Kriegsverbrechen. Eine Herausforderung für die Internationale Strafgerichtsbarkeit.« Frauen im Militär. Empirische Befunde und Perspektiven zur Integration von Frauen in die Streitkräfte. Edited by Jens-Rainer Ahrens et al. Wiesbaden 2005: 242-264.

[Info] Mullins, Christopher W. »Sexual Violence During Armed Conflict.« The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and War. Edited by Ross McGarry et al. London 2016: 117-131.

[Info] Nagel, Robert U. »Talking to the Shameless? Sexual Violence and Mediation in Intrastate Conflicts.« The Journal of Conflict Resolution (January 23, 2019).

[Info] Neill, Kevin G. »Duty, Honor, Rape: Sexual Assault Against Women During War.« Journal of International Women's Studies 2 (2000): 43-51.

[Info] Nelaeva, Galina. Prosecution of Rape and Sexual Assaults as International Crimes: Explaining Variation. Ph.D. Thesis, Central European University, 2007.

[Info] Nelaeva, Galina A. ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???. 1993-2008. Tyumen 2013.

[Info] Nordstrom, Carolyn. »The Erased Girl: Following the Links between War, Sexual Violence, and Global Profits.« Women´s Bodies as Battlefields - Sexual Violence against Women in Wartime. Hamburg 2001.

[Info] Oosterhoff, Pauline, et al. Addressing Sexual Violence in and beyond the 'Warzone'. Brighton 2014.

[Info] Phelps, Andrea R. »Gender-Based War Crimes: Incidence and Effectiveness of International Criminal Prosecution.« William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law 12 (2006): 499-520.

[Info] Plessow, Oliver. »Sexualisierte Kriegsgewalt in Geschichtsspielfilmen: Mediale Herausforderungen und Potenziale für historisches Lernen.« Zeitschrift für Geschichtsdidaktik 19 (2020): 30-44.

[Info] Ponzanesi, Sandra, ed. Gender, Globalization, and Violence: Postcolonial Conflict Zones. New York 2014.

[Info] Rial, Carmen. »Guerra de imagens, imagens da guerra.« Cadernos Pagu No. 47 (2016).

[Info] Rial, Carmen. »War of Images, Images of War.« Cadernos Pagu No. 47 (2016).

[Info] Rittner, Carol, et al., eds. Rape: Weapon of War and Genocide. St. Paul 2012.

[Info] Roth, John K., et al., eds. Teaching About Rape in War and Genocide. Basingstoke 2016.

[Info] Saha, Arpita. »Rape as a War Crime: The Position of International Law since World War II.« Journal of East Asia and International Law 2 (2009): 497-516.

[Info] Sajor, Indai L, ed. Common Grounds: Violence against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations. Quezon City 1998.

[Info] Saliba, Maurício G. »Feridas da alma: Análise da tipificação do estupro como genocídio à luz de uma criminologia feminista.« Revista da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais No. 73 (2018): 479-504.

[Info] Sánchez Parra, Tatiana. Children Born as a Consequence of Wartime Sexual Violence: Subverting Structures of Discrimination. M.A. Thesis, University of Essex, 2012.

[Info] Sanford, Victoria, et al., eds. Gender Violence in Peace and War: States of Complicity. New Brunswick 2016.

[Info] Sarwari, Mehwish. »Impact of Rebel Group Ideology on Wartime Sexual Violence.« Journal of Global Security Studies (September 12, 2020).

[Info] Schott, Robin M. »Wartime Violence against Civilians: Philosophical Reflections on War Rape.« Civilians at War: From Fifteenth Century to the Present. Edited by Gunner Lind. Copenhagen 2014: 185-202.

[Info] Schwartz, Agatha, et al. »Between Victimhood and Empowerment: What Women’s Narratives about Two Episodes of 20th Century War Rape Can Teach us in the 21st Century.« 5th International Conference on Gender & Women. Bangkok 2018.

[Info] Schwartz, Agatha. »’Children of the Enemy’: The Transgenerational Impact of Sexual Violence in Wars.« 21st Century Reflections on Sexual Violence in Wars, its Transgenerational and Transnational Impact. Ottawa 2018.

[Info] Sedgwick, James B. »Crying shame: War crimes, sexual violence, and the cost of 'speaking out'.« Acta Academica 47 (2015): 60-77.

[Info] Seifert, Ruth. »Rape in wars. Analytical approaches.« Minerva 11 (1993): 17-32.

[Info] Seifert, Ruth. »The second front. The logic of sexual violence in wars.« Women’s studies international forum 19 (1996): 35-43.

[Info] Seifert, Ruth. »Il corpo femminile come corpo politico. Lo stupro, la guerra e la nazione.« Difesa sociale 86 (2007): 41-54.

[Info] Seto, Donna. No Place for a War Baby: The Global Politics of Children Born of Wartime Sexual Violence. Farnham 2013.

[Info] Sjoberg, Laura. Women as Wartime Rapists: Beyond Sensation and Stereotyping. New York 2016.

[Info] Skjelsbæk, Inger. »Sexual violence and war. Mapping out a complex relationship.« European journal of inrernational relations 7 (2001): 211-237.

[Info] Skjelsbæk, Inger. »Responsibility to Protect or Prevent? Victims and Perpetrators of Sexual Violence Crimes in Armed Conflicts.« Responsibility to Protect and Women, Peace and Security: Aligning the Protection Agendas. Edited by Sara E. Davies et al. Leiden 2013: 81- .

[Info] Soko?owska-Pary?, Marzena. »War Rape: Trauma and the Ethics of Representation.« Traumatic Memories of the Second World War and After. Edited by Peter Leese et al. Houndmills 2016: 223-244.

[Info] Soucaille, Alexandre. »La présence du viol: Savoirs, épreuves et témoignages (Inde).« Les viols en temps de guerre: une histoire à écrire - Rape in Wartime: A History to be Written. Paris 2009.

[Info] Sriram, Nayantara. »Sexual Violence as an Accredited Atrocity under the International Criminal Court.« University of Leicester Student Law Review No. 3 (2016): 17-22.

[Info] St. Germain, Tonia, et al. Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: International Law, Local Responses. Sterling 2012.

[Info] Stock, Isabella, et al., eds. Zeit zu sprechen. Texte und Materialien zu sexualisierter Kriegsgewalt gegen Frauen. Cologne 2005.

[Info] Tompkins, Tamara L. »Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime: Speaking the Unspeakable.« Notre Dame Law Review 70 (1995): 845-890.

[Info] Torrecuadrada Garcia-Lozano, Soledad. »Los hijos del enemigo: Las víctimas silenciosas de los crímenes sexuales.« Anuario Español de Derecho Internacional No. 33 (2017): 127-168.

[Info] Turshen, Meredeth. »Violence Against Women in War Economies.« War and Sexual Violence. New York 2016.

[Info] Turshen, Meredeth. Violence Against Women in the New African Wars. War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Edited by Sarah K. Danielsson. Paderborn 2019: 51-66.

[Info] Utsumi, Aiko. »How the Violence against Women were Dealt with in War Crime Trials.« Common Grounds: Violence against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations. Edited by Indai L. Sajor. Quezon City 1998: 187-197.

[Info] Varrasso, Bridget. »Sexual Violence Perpetrated against Women in War.« Perspective 6 (2012): 46-51.

[Info] Vikman, Elisabeth. »Modern combat. Sexual violence in warfare, part II.« Anthropology and medicine 12 (2005): 33-46.

[Info] Vojdik, Valorie K. »Sexual Violence Against Men and Women in War: A Masculinities Approach.« Nevada Law Journal 14 (2014): 923-852.

[Info] Vrdoljak, A.F. »Women, PMSCs and International Law.« Gender and Private Force in Global Politics. Edited by M. Eichler. Oxford 2013.

[Info] Wachala, Kas. »The Tools to Combat the War on Women's Bodies: Rape and Sexual Violence against Women in Armed Conflict.« International Journal of Human Rights 16 (2012): 533-553.

[Info] Waszink, Camilla. La protection de la population civile au titre du droit international humanitaire: Tendances et difficultés. Oslo 2012.

[Info] Weitsman, Patricia. »Children Born of War and the Politics of Identity.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 110-127.

[Info] Wette, Wolfram, et al., eds. Kriegsverbrechen im 20. Jahrhundert. Darmstadt 2001.

[Info] Whitlock, Gillian. »Remediating Gorilla Girl: Rape Warfare and the Limits of Humanitarian Storytelling.« Biography 33 (2010): 471-497.

[Info] Winter, Sebastian, et al. »Paranoid Repulsion-Combat Posture: Psychoanalytic Social Psychology of War and the Connection to the Core of Hyper-Masculinity.« War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Edited by Sarah K. Danielsson. Paderborn 2019: 67-83.

[Info] Wood, Elisabeth J. »Sexual Violence during War: Explaining Variation.« Order, Conflict and Violence. New Haven 2004.

[Info] Wood, Elisabeth J. »Variación de la violencia sexual en tiempos de guerra: la violación en la guerra no es inevitable.« Estudios Socio-Jurídicos 14 (2012): 19-57.

[Info] Wullweber, Helga. »Kriegsverbrechen Vergewaltigung.« Massenvergewaltigung. Krieg gegen Frauen. Edited by Alexandra Stiglmayer. Freiburg 1993: 247-268.

[Info] Wullweber, Helga. »Vergewaltigung als Waffe und das Kriegsvölkerrecht.« Kritische Justiz 26 (1993): 179-193.

[Info] Zaleski, Kristen, et al. »The History of Sexual Violence in War.« Understanding and Treating Military Sexual Trauma. Edited by Kristen Zaleski. Cham 2015: 3-16.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »"Blood, sperm and tears": Sexuelle Gewalt in Kriegen.« Mittelweg 36 10 (2001): 3-20.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »"Blood, sperm and tears": Sexual Violence in War.« Eurozine (November 2001).

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »Schlachtfeld Frauenkörper. Sexuelle Gewalt in Kriegen.« Grenzziehungen - Grenzübertritte: Beobachtungen zu Stereotypen und Tabus. Hamburg 2001.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »Ausnahmezustand Krieg? Anmerkungen zu soldatischer Männlichkeit, sexueller Gewalt und militärischer Einhegung.« Krieg und Geschlecht: Sexuelle Gewalt im Krieg und Sex-Zwangsarbeit in NS-Konzentrationslagern. Edited by Insa Eschebach et al. Berlin 2008: 55-74.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »„Lass uns ein bisschen Spaß haben“: Zum Verhältnis von Gender, Gewalt und Sexualität in kriegerischen Konflikten.« literaturkritik.de 14 (2012).

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »"Vamos lá curtir um bocado": A relação entre identidade sexual, violência e sexualidade em conflitos armados.« Revista crítica de ciências sociais No. 96 (2012): 31-46.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby. »"Let Us Have a Little Fun": The Relationship between Gender, Violence and Sexuality in Armed Conflict Situations.« RCCS Annual Review No. 5 (2013): 32-45.

[Info] Zipfel, Gaby, et al., eds. In Plain Sight: Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. New Delhi 2019.

[Info] Zirpins, Cornelia. »Vergewaltigung: Analyse eines Kriegsverbrechens.« Wissenschaft und Frieden No. 2 (1997).

[Info] Zoltanski, Jennifer L. »The Construction of Rape as a Problem of War: Recognition and Legitimation as a Crime against Humanity.« 51st Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Anaheim 2001.


[Site] A f r i c a n   H i s t o r y

[Site] General

[Info] Fourati, Maleke, et al. Sexual violence as a weapon of war. Lisbon 2021.

[Info] Hynd, Stacey. »Forced Marriage and Sexual Slavery among Girl Soldiers in African Conflicts, c. 1980-2010.« 10th European Social Scinece History Conference. 2014.

[Info] Laband, John. »Introduction: African Civilians in Wartime.« Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide. Edited by John Laband. Westport 2007: 1-16.

[Info] Musingafi, Maxwell C.C., et al. »Gender Dynamics and Women In Conflict Situations And Post Conflict Recovery: Experiences From Africa.« Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 3 (2013): 53-61.

[Info] Nordås, Ragnild, et al. Sexual Violence in African Conflicts, 1989-2009: What the Data Show. Oslo 2012.

[Info] Puechguirbal, Nadine. »Breaking the Silence: New Approaches to the Consequences of Rape in Some African Conflicts, 1994-2008.« Rape in Wartime. Edited by Raphaëlle Branche et al. Basingstoke 2012: 140- .


[Site] Algerian History

Wars: Algerian War (1954-1962), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002)


[Site] Burundian History

Wars: Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)


[Site] Congolese History

Wars: First Congo War (1996-1997), Second Congo War (1998-2003)


[Site] Ethiopian History


[Site] Kenyan History


[Site] Liberian History

Wars: First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003)


[Site] Mozambican History

Wars: Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)


[Site] Namibian History

Wars: Namibian War of Independence (1966-1990)


[Site] Nigerian History


[Site] Rwandan History

Wars: Rwandan Civil War (1990-1993)


[Site] Sierra Leonean History

Wars: Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002)


[Site] South African History

Wars: Second Boer War (1899-1902), Namibian War of Independence (1966-1990)


[Site] Somali History

Wars: Somali Civil War (1986-present)


[Site] Sudanese History

Wars: Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005)


[Site] Tanzanian History

Wars: Maji Maji Rebellion (1905-1908)

[Info] Giblin, James. »The Victimization of Women in Late Precolonial and Early Colonial Warfare in Tanzania.« Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights. Edited by Elizabeth D. Heineman. Philadelphia 2011: 89-102.


[Site] Ugandan History

Wars: Lord's Resistance Army Insurgency (1987-present)


[Site] Zimbabwean History

Wars: Rhodesian Bush War (1964-1979)


[Site] A m e r i c a n   H i s t o r y

[Site] Colombian History

Wars: Colombian Conflict (1964-present)


[Site] Dominican History


[Site] Guatemalan History

Wars: Guatemalan Civil War (1960-1996)


[Site] Haitian History


[Site] Mexican History

Wars: Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)


[Site] Nicaraguan History

Wars: Nicaraguan Revolution (1962-1990)


[Site] Peruvian History

Wars: Internal Conflict in Peru (1980-present)


[Site] Salvadorean History

Wars: Salvadorean Civil War (1979-1992)


[Site] U.S. History

[Info] Hillius, William J. Assuming Rape: The Reproduction of Fear in American Military Female POWs. M.A. Thesis, University of Washington, 2012.

[Info] Paschall, Rod. »War Crimes.« The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Edited by John Whiteclay Chambers II. Oxford 1999: 781-782.


[Site] A s i a n   H i s t o r y

[Site] Afghan History

Wars: Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989), Afghan Civil War


[Site] Armenian History

Wars: Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988-1994)


[Site] Azerbaijani History

Wars: Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988-1994)


[Site] Bangladeshi History

Wars: Indo-Pakistani War (1947-1948), Bangladesh Liberation War (1971)


[Site] Burmese History

Wars: Internal Conflict in Myanmar (1948-present)


[Site] Chinese History

[Info] Wekkin, Gary D. Militarism and the Chinese Communists: A Study of the Development of Communist Political Authoritiy in the Shansi-Chahar-Hopei Border Region and the Shantung Guerrilla Area, 1937-1940. M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972.


[Site] Indian History

Wars: Indo-Pakistani War (1947-1948), Kashmir Conflict (1947-present), Insurgency in Northeast India (1963-present)

[Info] Soucaille, Alexandre. »Promettre le viol: Milices privées contre guérilla maoïste dans l’État du Bihar (Inde).« Viols en temps de guerre. Edited by Raphaëlle Branche et al. Paris 2011: 119- .

[Info] Soucaille, Alexandre. »Promising Rape: Private Militias against Maoist Guerrillas in the State of Bihar (India).« Rape in Wartime. Edited by Raphaëlle Branche et al. Basingstoke 2012: 115-127.


[Site] Indonesian History


[Site] Iraqi History

Wars: Gulf War (1990-1991)


[Site] Israeli History

Wars: Arab-Israeli Conflict (1948-present)


[Site] Japanese History

Wars: Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

[Info] Li, Lin. »The Invisible Disabled Women: Japan's Wartime Sexual Violence and Postwar Japanese and Chinese Representations of Disability.« Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Denver 2019.


[Site] Korean History

Wars: Korean War


[Site] Nepalese History

Wars: Nepalese Civil War (1996-2006)


[Site] Pakistani History

Wars: Indo-Pakistani War (1947-1948), Bangladesh Liberation War (1971)


[Site] Palestinian History


[Site] Philippine History

Wars: Philippine-American War (1899-1902)


[Site] Sri Lancan History

Wars: Sri Lankan Civil War (1983-2009)


[Site] Timorese History


[Site] Turkish History


[Site] Vietnamese History

Wars: Vietnam War (1955-1975)

[Info] Virgili, Fabrice. »Examination of a War Crime: Hagiang (French Indochina) march 1945.« Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Paris 2012.


[Site] E u r o p e a n   H i s t o r y

[Site] General

[Info] Gerwarth, Robert. »Violence Against Women in the Central European Counterrevolution, 1919-1922.« The History of Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones. Iowa City 2006.

[Info] Gerwarth, Robert. »Sexual and Nonsexual Violence Against "Politicized Women" in Central Europe After the Great War.« Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights. Edited by Elizabeth D. Heineman. Philadelphia 2011: 122-136.

[Info] Herzog, Dagmar, ed. Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century. Basingstoke 2009.

[Info] Herzog, Dagmar. »Introduction: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century.« Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century. Edited by Dagmar Herzog. Basingstoke 2009: 1-15.


[Site] Bosnian History

Wars: Bosnian War (1992-1995)


[Site] Croatian History

Wars: Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995)


[Site] Cyprian History


[Site] English History

Wars: Second Boer War (1899-1902), Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921), Mau Mau Uprising, Rhodesian Bush War (1964-1979), The Troubles (1969-1998)


[Site] Finnish History

Wars: Continuation War (1941-1944)


[Site] French History

Wars: Algerian War (1954-1962)


[Site] Greece History

Wars: Greek Civil War (1946-1949), Cyprus Dispute


[Site] Irish History

Wars: Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921), Irish Civil War (1922-1923), The Troubles (1969-1998)


[Site] Italian History


[Site] Macedonian History

Wars: Balkan Wars (1912-1913)


[Site] Polish History


[Site] Portuguese History

Wars: Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974)


[Site] Russian History

Wars: Russian Civil War (1917-1922), Continuation War (1941-1944), Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989), First Chechen War (1994-1996), Second Chechen War (1999-2009)

[Info] Muravyeva, Marianna G. »Le viol dans la législation militaire russe moderne (XVIe-XXe siècle).« Viols en temps de guerre. Edited by Raphaëlle Branche et al. Paris 2011: 25-42.

[Info] Muravyeva, Marianna G. »Categorising Rape in Military Law of Modern Russia.« Rape in Wartime. Edited by Raphaëlle Branche et al. Basingstoke 2012: 17-33.


[Site] Serbian History

Wars: Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995), Bosnian War (1992-1995), Kosovo War (1998-1999)


[Site] Spanish History

Wars: Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)


[Site] Ukrainian History


[Site] O c e a n i a n   H i s t o r y

[Site] Solomon History

Wars: Solomon Islands Conflict (1998-2003)