Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke


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Start: Topical Index: Types: Wartime Sexual Violence: 20th Century:

Types: Wartime Sexual Violence:

G e n e r a l   I n f o r m a t i o n

»The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started on 6 April 1992, following a number of earlier violent incidents. The war ended on 14 December 1995 when the Dayton accords were signed. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, those of Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska, proto-states led and supplied by Croatia and Serbia, respectively.« -- More information: Wikipedia

Rape during the Bosnian War

I n f o r m a t i o n

»Rape during the Bosnian War was a policy of mass systemic violence targeted against women. While men from all ethnic groups committed rape, the vast majority of rapes were perpetrated by Bosnian Serb forces of the Army of the Republika Srpska (VRS) and Serb paramilitary units, who used rape as an instrument of terror and key tactics as part of their programme of ethnic cleansing. Estimates of the number of women raped during the war range between 10,000 and 50,000. Accurate numbers are difficult to establish and it is believed that the number of unreported cases is much higher than reported ones.« -- More information: Wikipedia

K e y w o r d s

Chronological Index: Modern History: 20th Century | Geographical Index: European History: Bosnian History, Croatian History, Serbian History | Topical Index: Prosecution: Trials: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Women's Court | Victims: Rape Children | Society: Commemoration | Representations: Comics: Fax from Sarajevo: A Story of Survival, Safe Area Goražde; Films: As If I Am Not There, Grabavica; Literature: Alexandra Cavelius, Slavenka Drakulic; Media: The Guardian, The Observer; The Sunday Times, The Times;

B i b l i o g r a p h y

I. Author Index

[Info] Agathangelou, Anna M. »Nationalist Narratives and (Dis)Appearing Women: State-Sanctioned Sexual Violence.« Canadian Woman Studies 19 (2000): 12-21.

[Info] Allen, Beverly. Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minneapolis 1996.

[Info] Andri?-Ruži?i?, Duska. »War Rape and the Political Manipulation of Survivors.« Feminist under Fire: Exchanges across War Zones. Edited by Wenona Giles et al. Toronto 2003: 103-113.

[Info] Banita, Georgiana. »Escaping Binarism: The Bosnian War in the Canadian Imagination.« Zeitschrift für Kanada-Studien 30 (2010): 45-61.

[Info] Banjeglav, Tamara. Gender, Nation, Rape: Intersections of Gender and Ethnic Violence during the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. M.A. Thesis, Central European University, 2009.

[Info] Barkan, Joanne. »As Old As War Itself: Rape in Foca.« Dissent 49 (2002): 60-66.

[Info] Basic, Goran. »Constructing “Ideal Victim” Stories of Bosnian War Survivors.« Social Inclusion 3 (2015): 25-37.

[Info] Basic, Goran. »Conditions for Reconciliation: Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.« Varstvoslovje 17 (2015): 107-126.

[Info] Basic, Goran. »Stories of Sexualized War Violence after the Bosnian War.« Femicide: Targeting of Women in Conflict. A Global Issue That Demands Action. Vol. III. Edited by Michael Platzer et al. Vienna 2015: 102-105.

[Info] Basic, Goran. »Definitions of Violence: Narratives of Survivors From the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.« Journal of Interpersonal Violence (January 6, 2016).

[Info] Bassett, Gwyn D. A Discourse Analysis of Rape in War: Case Studies from Bosnia, Burma and Rwanda. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, 2005.

[Info] Bayard, Pierre. »Collective Rape and Postmemory in Bosnia.« Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies 4 (2015): 115-123.

[Info] Beck, Birgit. »Massenvergewaltigungen als Kriegsverbrechen: Zur Entwicklung des Völkerrechts.« Kriegsverbrechen im 20. Jahrhundert. Edited by Wolfram Wette et al. Darmstadt 2001: 406-418.

[Info] Benard, Cheryl. »Rape as terror. The case of Bosnia.« Terrorism and political violence 6 (1994): 29-43.

[Info] Benderly, Jill. »Rape, feminism, and nationalism in the war in Yugoslav successor states.« Feminist nationalism. Edited by Lois A. West. New York 1997: 59-72.

[Info] Bergoffen, Debra B. »How Rape Became a Crime against Humanity: History of an Error.« Modernity and the Problem of Evil. Edited by Alan D. Schrift. Bloomington 2005: 66-80.

[Info] Bergoffen, Debra B. »From genocide to justice. Women’s bodies as a legal writing pad.« Feminist studies 32 (2006): 11-37.

[Info] Bergoffen, Debra B. Contesting the Politics of Genocidal Rape: Affirming the Dignity of the Vulnerable Body. New York 2012.

[Info] Berry, Marie E. Women, War, and Politics in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Washington, D.C. 2013.

[Info] Bos, Pascale R. »Feminists interpreting the politics of wartime rape. Berlin 1945; Yugoslavia, 1992-93.« Signs 31 (2006): 995-1025.

[Info] Bos, Pascale R. »Feministische Deutungen sexueller Gewalt im Krieg. Berlin 1945, Jugoslawien 1992-1993.« Krieg und Geschlecht. Sexuelle Gewalt im Krieg und Sex-Zwangsarbeit in NS-Konzentrationslagern. Edited by Insa Eschebach et al. Berlin 2008: 103-123.

[Info] Carpenter, R. Charli. Forgetting Children Born of War: Setting the Human Rights Agenda in Bosnia and Beyond. New York 2010.

[Info] Chambers, John W. »Bosnian Crisis.« The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Edited by John Whiteclay Chambers II. Oxford 1999: 88-89.

[Info] Clark, Janine N. »Untangling Rape Causation and the Importance of the Micro Level: Elucidating the Use of Mass Rape during the Bosnian War.« Ethnopolitics (April 14, 2016).

[Info] Clark, Janine N. Rape, Sexual Violence and Transitional Justice Challenges: Lessons from Bosnia Herzegovina. London 2017.

[Info] Clark, Janine N. »Transitional Justice, Education, and Sexual Violence Stigma: The Results of a Schools-based Study in Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Journal of Law and Society 45 (2018): 509-537.

[Info] Cockburn, Cynthia. »Against the odds: Sustaining feminist momentum in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Women's Studies International Forum 37 (2013): 26-35.

[Info] Como, Jennifer R. Historical Taxonomy of Mass Rape in Wartime. Master Thesis, Western Illinois University, 2019.

[Info] ?uk, Renata. »Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflicts.« Fondacija Mirovna Akademija (2011).

[Info] Cutrignelli, Aruna. Violenza sulle donne e stampa quotidiana in Italia: Il caso della guerra in Bosnia. Tesi di Laurea, Università di Bologna, 2011.

[Info] Czeszejko-Sochacka, Katarzyna. »Amendment to the act on civilian victims of war and the legal situation of children of war rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina.« Polityka i Społeczeństwo 21 (2023): 92-105.

[Info] Daniel-Wrabetz, Joana. »Children Born of War Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.« Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 21-39.

[Info] Da?tan, Vesile N. The Use of Sexual and Gender Based Violence as a War Strategy in Bosnian War. Master Thesis, Hacettepe University, 2019.

[Info] Di Caro, Claire B. »Call It What It Is: Genocide Through Male Rape and Sexual Violence in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.« Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 30 (2019): 57-91.

[Info] Di Palma, Sara V. »Lo stupro come arma contro le donne: l'ex Jugoslavia, il Rwanda e l'area dei Grandi Laghi africani.« Stupri di guerra. La violenza di massa contro le donne nel Novecento. Edited by Marcello Flores. Milan 2010: 216-238.

[Info] Di Palma, Sara V. »Guerra e violenza di genere: Gli stupri in Bosnia negli anni Novanta del Novecento.« Contemporanea 14 (2011): 457-478.

[Info] Di Palma, Sara V. »Corpi di donne in guerra. La violenza sessuale in Bosnia e Ruanda e i problemi del dopoguerra.« Storicamente No. 10 (2014).

[Info] Doja, Albert. »Politics of mass rapes in ethnic conflict: A morphodynamics of raw madness and cooked evil.« Crime, Law and Social Change 71 (2019): 541-580.

[Info] Doja, Albert. »Rethinking the Politics of Mass Rapes as a Military Strategy and Instrument of Ethnic Cleansing.« War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Edited by Sarah K. Danielsson. Paderborn 2019: 85-130.

[Info] Durakovi?, Indira. Massenvergewaltigungen im Bosnienkrieg (1992-1995). Diplomarbeit, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, 2008.

[Info] Engle, Karen. »Feminism and Its (Dis)contents: Criminalizing Wartime Rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina.« American Journal of International Law 99 (2005): 778-816.

[Info] Erjavec, Karmen, et al. »Living With the Sins of Their Fathers: An Analysis of Self-Representation of Adolescents Born of War Rape.« Journal of Adolescent Research 25 (2010): 359-386.

[Info] Erjavec, Karmen, et al. »‘Target’, ‘cancer’ and ‘warrior’: Exploring painful metaphors of self-presentation used by girls born of war rape.« Discourse & Society 21 (2010): 524-543.

[Info] Fitzpatrick, Brenda. »Rape as genocide. Lessons from the Balkans and Rwanda in the 1990s.« Violence against women. From silence to empowerment. Edited by Don Brandt. Monrovia 2003: 75-83.

[Info] Fitzpatrick, Brenda. Tactical Rape in War and Conflict: International Recognition and Response. Bristol 2016.

[Info] Fitzsimons-Quail, Alice. »Who is speaking? co-option, authority, and envisioning the nation: Women and narratives of sexual violence in conflict.« South Asianist 3 (2015): 24-52.

[Info] Fu?ek, Ma?gorzata. Der Balkankonflikt in der deutschsprachigen Literatur und Publizistik in den Jahren 1991-2008. Praca doktorska, Uniwersytet Warszawski, 2019.

[Info] Gaca, Kathy L. »The Marital Rape of Girls and Women in Antiquity and Modernity.« The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict. Edited by Fionnuala Ní Aoláin et al. Oxford 2018: 306-315.

[Info] Gagro, Sandra F. »The Crime of Rape in the ICTY's and the ICTR's Case-Law.« Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta u Zagrebu 60 (2010): 1309-1334.

[Info] Ganzevoort, R. Ruard, et al. »Masculinity, Spirituality, and Male Wartime Sexual Trauma.« Interdisciplinary Handbook of Trauma and Culture. Edited by Yochai Ataria et al. Cham 2016: 339-351.

[Info] Garraio, Júlia. »Com os Tribunais Internacionais para a Ex-Jugoslávia e para o Ruanda atingimos um ponto de não Retorno no que diz respeito ao julgamento de violência sexual: Entrevista com Gabriela Mischkowski.« P@X - Boletim da linha de Estudos para a Paz No. 18 (2012): 8-11.

[Info] Garraio, Júlia. »"With the International Criminal Tribunal for the Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda we reached a point of no return in respect to prosecuting sexual violence": Interview with Gabriela Mischkowski.« P@X - Peace Studies Research Line Bulletin No. 18 (2012): 8-11.

[Info] Gilnagh, S. Racism and rape. A weapon of war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. M.Eq.St. Thesis, University College Dublin, 1998.

[Info] Gopsill, Anna. Implausible Victims: Sexual Abuse of Men within Detention Facilities in Bosnia, 1992-1995. Masters Thesis, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2014.

[Info] Gosh, Gitanjali, et al. »The Evolving Jurisprudence of Rape as a War Crime.« International Journal of Law and Legal Jurisprudence Studies 1 (2014).

[Info] Greve, Kathrin. Sexuelle Gewalt gegen Frauen vor internationalen Strafgerichten. Dissertation, Universität Regensburg, 2006.

[Info] Halilovi?, Majda. »Ratno seksualno nasilje i rodno zasnovano nasilje nakon rata.« Kojeg je roda sigurnost? 20 godina Rezolucije Vije?a sigurnosti 1325 “Žene, mir i sigurnost” i njezina provedba u Bosni i Hercegovini. Edited by Amila Ždralovi? et al. Sarajevo 2020: 217-235.

[Info] Halilovi?, Majda. »Wartime Sexual Violence and Post-War Gender-Based Violence.« What is the Gender of Security? 20 Years of the Security Council Resolution 1325 “Women, Peace and Security” and Its Implementation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Edited by Amila Ždralovi? et al. Sarajevo 2020: 235-256.

[Info] Hansen, Lene. »Gender, nation, rape: Bosnia and the construction of security.« International feminist journal of politics 3 (2001): 55-75.

[Info] Harper, Stephen. Screening Bosnia: Geopolitics, Gender and Nationalism in Film and Television Images of the 1992-95 War. London 2017.

[Info] Hayden, Robert M. »Rape and Rape Avoidance in Ethno-National Conflicts: Sexual Violence in Liminalized States.« American Anthropologist 102 (2000): 27-41.

[Info] Hayden, Robert M. From Yugoslavia to the Western Balkans: Studies of a European Disunion, 1991-2011. Leiden 2013.

[Info] Henry, Nicola. »Witness to Rape: The Limits and Potential of International War Crimes Trials for Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence.« International Journal of Transitional Justice 3 (2009): 114-134.

[Info] Henry, Nicola. War and Rape: Law, memory and justice. New York 2011.

[Info] Hirschauer, Sabine. All is Fair in War: Violent Conflict and the Securitization of Rape. Ph.D. Thesis, Old Dominion University, 2012.

[Info] Hirschauer, Sabine. The Securitization of Rape: Women, War and Sexual Violence. New York 2014.

[Info] Holt, Kate, et al. »Våldtäktsbarn.« Ottar No. 3 (2006): 4-9.

[Info] Holzer, Nina. Vergewaltigung und sexuelle Versklavung im Krieg als Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit. Dissertation, Universität Linz, 2005.

[Info] Hromadži?, Azra. »Kriegsvergewaltigungen in Bosnien. Alte und neue Erklärungsansätze.« Gender, Identität und kriegerischer Konflikt. Das Beispiel des ehemaligen Jugoslawien. Edited by Ruth Seifert. Münster 2004: 112-130.

[Info] Iacobelli, Teresa. »The ‘Sum of Such Actions’: Investigating Mass Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina through a Case Study of Foca.« Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe’s Twentieth Century. Edited by Dagmar Herzog. Basingstoke 2009: 261-283.

[Info] Iverson, Mark W. Mass Rape in Fo?a: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia vs. Dragoljub Kunarac. M.A. Thesis, Boise State University, 2014.

[Info] Jacobs, Janet. »The memorial at Srebrencia: Gender and the social meanings of collective memory in Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Memory Studies (June 5, 2016).

[Info] Kappeler, Susanne, et al., eds. Vergewaltigung, Krieg, Nationalismus. Eine feministische Kritik. Munich 1994.

[Info] Kastrat, Aida. Die Darstellung sexueller Gewalt im postjugoslawischen Film: Eine feministische Kritik. Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, 2015.

[Info] Kennedy-Pipe, Caroline et al. »Rape in war. Lessons of the Balkan conflicts in the 1990s.« The Kosovo tragedy. The human rights dimensions. Edited by Ken Booth. London 2001: 67-84.

[Info] Kesic, Vesna. »Muslim women, Croatian women, Serbian women, Albanian women.« Balkan as metaphor. Between globalization and fragmentation. Edited by Dušan I. Bjeli? et al. Cambridge 2002.

[Info] King, Kimi L., et al. »Deborah's Voice: The Role of Women in Sexual Assault Cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.« Social Science Quarterly (May 31, 2016).

[Info] Korac, Maja. »Gender, conflict and peace-building. Lessons from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia.« Women’s studies international forum 29 (2006): 510-520.

[Info] Lapinsuo, Iida. Sexual Violence as a Weapon of Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide in the Yugoslav Wars: How Sexual Violence in the 1990s Yugoslav Wars and Establishing the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Shaped International Humanitarian Law. Master Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2017.

[Info] Lee, Sabine, et al. »Kinder des Krieges im 20. Jahrhundert.« Besatzungskinder: Die Nachkommen alliierter Soldaten in Österreich und Deutschland. Edited by Barbara Stelzl-Marx et al. Vienna 2015: 15-38.

[Info] Lindsey, Rose. »From atrocity to data. Historiographies of rape in former Yugoslavia and the gendering of genocide.« Patterns of prejudice 36 (2002): 59-78.

[Info] McKenzie, Kaitlin. The Bosnian Conflict: Justice, Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and the Systematic Use of Rape. Master Thesis, Emory University, 2012.

[Info] Meszaros, Sara. »Ratno seksualno nasilje nad ženama i Me?unarodni sud za ratne zlo?ine po?injene na podru?ju bivše Jugoslavije.« Diskrepancija 5 (2004): 7-16.

[Info] Mo?nik, Nena. »Narrated Silence in Sexual Scripts of War Rape Survivors: Hidden Transmission of Violent Sexual Patterns.« Sexuality & Culture (May 23, 2018).

[Info] Mo?nik, Nena. Sexuality after War Rape: From Narrative to Embodied Research. London 2018.

[Info] Muranovi?, Azra. Sexual Violence and its Migration Aftermath. Bachelor of Science Thesis, Malmö University, 2010.

[Info] Nahoum-Grappe, Véronique. »Guerre et différence des sexes. Les viols systématiques (ex-Yougoslavie, 1991-1995).« De la violence et des femmes. Edited by Cécile Dauphin et al. Paris 1997: 159-184.

[Info] Nahoum-Grappe, Véronique. »La purification ethnique et les viols systématiques. Ex-Yougoslavie, 1991-1995.« Clio No. 5 (1997): 163-175.

[Info] Naimark, Norman N. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth Century Europe. Seattle 1998.

[Info] Nelaeva, Galina A. »“The Path Towards Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence”? International Responses to Wartime Rape in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).« Kaleidoscope 9 (2014): 194-209.

[Info] Niarchos, Catherine N. »Women, war, and rape. Challenges facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.« Human rights quarterly 17 (1995): 649-690.

[Info] Núñez del Prado, Fabiana. »Definiendo la violación sexual en el derecho internacional: la contribución de los Tribunales Penales Internacionales ad hoc.« Agenda Internacional 19 (2012): 21-44.

[Info] Nyirasafari, Ange. Défis d'intégration sociale post-conflit des enfants nés des viols en temps de guerre: Le cas de la Bosnie-Herzegovine (BiH). Mémoire, Université d'Ottawa, 2015.

[Info] Olujic, Maria B. »Women, Rape, and War: The Continued Trauma of Refugees and Displaced Persons in Croatia.« Anthropology of East Europe Review 13 (1995): 62-67.

[Info] Olujic, Maria B. »Embodiment of Terror: Gendered Violence in Peacetime and Wartime in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Medical Anthropology Quarterly 12 (1998): 31-50.

[Info] Ortmann, Anja. »Sexualisierte Gewalt in bewaffneten Konflikten am Beispiel des Bosnienkrieges.« psychosozial 44 (2021): 15-21.

[Info] Petersson, Louise. Imaginary Battlefield: War rape, the extreme consequence of gender hierarchy. Master Thesis, Lund University, 2012.

[Info] Price, Lisa S. Making Rape a War Crime: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Its Treatment of Sexual Violence. Ph.D. Thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University, 1999.

[Info] Ray, Amy E. »The Shame of It: Gender-Based Terrorism in the Former Yugoslavia and the Failure of International Human Rights Law to Comprehend the Injuries.« American University Law Review 46 (1997): 793-840.

[Info] Rea, Angela. Martial Rape and International Law: The Work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Memoir, University of Ottawa, 2005.

[Info] Reid-Cunningham, Allison R. »Rape as a Weapon of Genocide.« Genocide Studies and Prevention 3 (2008): 279-296.

[Info] Richter-Lyonette, Elenor. Bibliography. Gender, war & justice. With special reference to the Balkan wars 1991-1999. Prangins 2002.

[Info] Ruzza, Nicola. »Gli stupri etnici nelle guerre dell'ex Jugoslavia: Lo sguardo delle scrittrici migranti.« Deportate, Esuli e Profughe No. 24 (2014): 18-35.

[Info] Ryken Katherine. »The role of physicians in transitional justice: Combatting the aftermath of mass rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology 5 (2016).

[Info] Sackellares, Stephanie N. »From Bosnia to Sudan: Sexual Violence in Modern Armed Conflict.« Wisconsin Women's Law Journal 20 (2005): 137-165.

[Info] Salzman, Todd. »"Rape camps," forced impregnation, and ethnic cleansing. Religious, cultural, and ethical responses to rape victims in the former Yugoslavia.« War’s dirty secret. Rape, prostitution, and other crimes against women. Edited by Anne L. Barstow. Cleveland 2000: 63-91.

[Info] Sandström, Sofie. History delayed: The response of the United Nations to rape as an act of genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda in the 1990's. Master Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2005.

[Info] Sarai, Sarbjeet K. The Rape of the Balkan Women: An Argument for the Full Recognition of Wartime Rape as a War Crime. M.A. Thesis, Queen's University, 1999.

[Info] Schoenfeld, Jacqueline A. »A Constructivist Perspective of Rape as a Military Strategy: A Comparative Analysis of the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian War.« USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal 4 (2018).

[Info] Selmanagi?, Emina. Mass Rape in Wartime Japan and Bosnia-Herzegovina: "Comfort Women" and Genocidal Rape. Tesi di laurea, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2016.

[Info] Selmanagic, Emina. »Genocidio e ginocidio: Gli stupri di massa in Bosnia-Erzegovina (1993-1995).« Deportate, esuli, profughe No. 36 (2018): 20-40.

[Info] Sharlach, Lisa. »Rape as genocide. Bangladesh, the former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda.« New political science 22 (2000): 89-102.

[Info] Sharratt, Sara. Gender, Shame and Sexual Violence: The Voices of Witnesses and Court Members at War Crimes Tribunals. Farnham 2011.

[Info] Simi?, Olivera, et al. »In the Land of Wartime Rape: Bosnia, Cinema, and Reparation.« Griffith Journal of Law & Human Dignity 2 (2014): 377-401.

[Info] Simi?, Olivera. »Rape, Silence and Denial.« Transitional Justice and Reconciliation: Lessons from the Balkans. Edited by Martina Fischer et al. New York 2016: 102-120.

[Info] Simi?, Olivera. Silenced Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence. London 2018.

[Info] Skinner, Eric. »Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Encyclopedia of rape. Edited by Merril D. Smith. Westport 2004: 28-29.

[Info] Skjelsbæk, Inger. »Sexual violence in times of war. A new challenge for peace operations?« International peacekeeping 8 (2001): 69-84.

[Info] Skjelsbæk, Inger. »Victim and survivor. Narrated social identities of women who experienced rape during the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Feminism & psychology 16 (2006): 373-403.

[Info] Skjelsbæk, Inger. The Political Psychology of War Rape: Studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina. London 2012.

[Info] Snyder, Cindy S., et al. »On the Battleground of Women's Bodies: Mass Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina.« Affilia 21 (2006): 184-195.

[Info] Solvang, Tomine B. Fra synliggjøring til rettsliggjøring: En kvalitativ medieanalyse av norske og britiske avisers fremstilling av seksuell vold under Bosniakrigen mellom 1992-1995 og Ukrainakrigen i 2022. Masteroppgave, Universitetet i Oslo, 2023.

[Info] St. Germain, Tonia, et al. »Justice on whose terms? A critique of international criminal justice responses to conflict-related sexual violence.« Women's Studies International Forum 37 (2013): 36-45.

[Info] Stanley, Penny. »Reporting of mass rape in the Balkans. Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose? From Bosnia to Kosovo.« Civil wars 2 (1999): 74-110.

[Info] Stanley, Penny. Mass Rape in War: Feminist Thought and British Press Representations of the Balkan Conflict 1991-1995. Ph.D. Thesis, Aberystwyth University, 2002.

[Info] Strupinskiene, Lina. »Living in the Shadows of Past Atrocities: War Babies of Bosnia.« Wagadu 10 (2012): 55-71.

[Info] Taylor, Jessica. Unholy Coercion: The Complicity of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Use of Rape as a War Tactic. M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa, 2010.

[Info] Taylor, Jessica. “Come and See What God Has Done”: Religious Violence and Sexual Violence in the Bosnian War, 1992-1995. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New Brunswick, 2017.

[Info] ten Bensel, Tusty, et al. »Stories of Wartime Rape Victims: The Deconstruction of Lived Experiences in the Balkan Conflict.« Violence and Gender 1 (2014): 77-89.

[Info] ten Bensel, Tusty, et al. »Collective Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Sierra Leone: A Comparative Case Study Analysis.« International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 61 (2017): 1075-1098.

[Info] Testino, Giulia. The Genocide Film Library: Donne, violenza, testimonianza in Bosnia-Erzegovina. Tesi di laurea magistrale, Università di Pisa, 2013.

[Info] Thach, Thida. La représentation de la violence faite aux femmes dans Un dimanche à la piscine à Kigali de Gil Courtemanche et Je m’appelle Bosnia de Madeleine Gagnon. M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa, 2014.

[Info] Thomas, Dorothy Q., et al. »Rape in war. The case of Bosnia.« Gender politics in the western Balkans. Women and society in Yugoslavia and the former Yugoslav states. Edited by Sabrina P. Ramet. University Park 1999: 203-218.

[Info] Van Boeschoten, Riki. »The Trauma of War Rape: A Comparative View on the Bosnian Conflict and the Greek Civil War.« History and Anthropology 14 (2003): 41-54.

[Info] Viseur-Sellers, Patricia. »Die anderen Stimmen. Übersetzer und Ermittler sexueller Gewalttaten in der Internationalen Strafverfolgung.« Mittelweg 36 18 (2009): 53-66.

[Info] von Erdmann, Elisabeth. »Vergewaltigung als Kommunikation zwischen Männern. Kontexte und Auseinandersetzung in Publizistik und Literatur.« Opfer – Beute – Boten der Humanisierung? Zur künstlerischen Rezeption der Überlebensstrategien von Frauen im Bosnienkrieg und im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Edited by Marijana Ersti? et al. Bielefeld 2012: 13-38.

[Info] Weitsman, Patricia A. »The politics of identity and sexual violence. A review of Bosnia and Rwanda.« Human rights quarterly 30 (2008): 561-578.

[Info] Whyte, Angela C. Placing Blame or Finding Peace: A Qualitative Analysis of the Legal Response to Rape as a War Crime in the Former Yugoslavia. M.A. Thesis, University of Manitoba, 2004.

[Info] Zahirovi?, Vanesa. Feminiserade offer och maskuliniserade våldtäktsmän: En analys av hur statsdomstolen i Bosnien-Hercegovina framställer de män som blev offer för våldtäkt och sexuellt våld under Bosnienkriget. Bachelor Thesis, Lunds universitet, 2015.

[Info] Žalec, Bojan. »Genocide as social death: A comparative conceptual analysis.« Anthropological Notebooks 19 (2013): 57-74.

[Info] Zawati, Hilmi M. »Impunity or immunity: Wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.« Torture 17 (2007): 27-47.

[Info] Zawati, Hilmi M., et al., eds. A Selected Socio-Legal Bibliography on Ethnic Cleansing, Wartime Rape, and Genocide in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Lewiston 2004.

[Info] Zeigler, Sara L., et al. »Pernicious Patriarchy or Prosecutorial Progress? Confronting Culture, War, and Rape in International Law.« Journal of Conflict Studies 25 (2005): 23-44.

[Info] Zitnik, Edward M. Embodied Rape: Ethnicity and Gender in the Prosecution of Wartime Rape in the Former Yugoslavia. Honors Research Thesis, Ohio State University, 2014.

[Info] Zoltanski, Jennifer L. The Construction of Rape as a Crime against Humanity: Recognition and Prosecution by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. Ph.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, 2006.

[Info] Zupanec, Nives. Uncovering the (Ethno)gendered Dimensions of 'Unconventional' State War and its Effect on Non-Combatants/(Ethno)nationalist 'Women'. M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1999.

[Info] Unknown Authorship. »"Ich war bis zum Zehnten bei Bewusstsein". Der Foca-Prozess.« Zeit zu sprechen. Texte und Materialien zu sexualisierter Kriegsgewalt gegen Frauen. Edited by Isabella Stock et al. Cologne 2005: 23-25.

[Info] Unknown Authorship. »Le viol comme arme de guerre. Conflits armés et violence sexuée au Chiapas et en ex-Yougoslavie.« Flagrant délit No. 9 (1999).

II. Speaker Index

[Info] Albayrak, Burcu. »Hegemonic Masculinity.« Sava? ve Siyasal ?iddette Haf?za ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Genç Ara?t?rmac?lar Konferans?. Istanbul 2014.

[Info] Basic, Goran. »Definitions of War Violence and Reconciliation in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.« First International Scientific and Professional Conference of Victimology in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo 2015.

[Info] Bergoffen, Debra. »ICTY Kunarac Case: The Judgment of February 22, 2001.« The Perpetration of Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: Sources of Explanation. Hamburg 2010.

[Info] Boczar, Amanda. »US Foreign Policy in the Wake of Mass Violence: Bosnia and Rwanda.« War and Sexual Violence. New York 2016.

[Info] Campbell, Kirsten. »Gender Justice and Prosecuting Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in the former Yugoslavia.« Sexuelle Gewalt – von der ‚Moderne‘ zur Gegenwart. Vienna 2018.

[Info] Claverie, Elisabeth. »Les viols commis en ex-Yougoslavie d'après les procès du TPIY.« Les violences sexuelles: approches historiques (XVIe-XXIe siècle). Paris 2008.

[Info] Crider, Lindsey. »Rape as a Crime and Crime against Humanity: The Effect of Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda on International Law.« 40th Annual Meeting of the Alabama Political Science Association. Auburn 2012.

[Info] Delic, Amra. »War Rape Context, Stigma and Silence related to War Rape Victims and Children Born of War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Experiences and Reflections 1992-2015.« Interdisciplinary perspectives on Children Born of War – from World War II to current conflict settings. Hannover 2015.

[Info] Eastwood, Margaret, et al. »A Comparative Analysis between Cases of Genocidal Rape in Bosnia Herzegovina and the Silent Voices of the ‘Comfort Women.« 7th Bi-annual Conference of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. Sarajevo 2007.

[Info] Hauser, Monika. »Narratives of Survivors of Sexual Violence from Bosnia and Herzegovina and from Kosovo.« »Against Our Will«—Forty Years After: Exploring the Field of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Hamburg 2015.

[Info] Jinks, Rebecca, et al. »Breaking the Silence: Gender and Genocide.« The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide. London 2017.

[Info] Mischowski, Gabriela. »Rape Narratives before the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and beyond the Legal Frame.« The Perpetration of Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: Sources of Explanation. Hamburg 2010.

[Info] Müser, Mechthild. »Vergewaltigung von Männern: Erniedrigung des Feindes durch Penetration.« Zeitfragen (November 30, 2015).

[Info] Müser, Mechthild. »Vergewaltigung als Kriegswaffe: Der Körper der Frau – ein Schlachtfeld.« Zeitfragen (November 30, 2015).

[Info] Otasevic, Snezana. »Defiling the Body: Purification Practices in the Campaigns of Ethnic Cleansing During Yugoslav Wars 1991-1995.« 38th Annual Conference of the National Women's Studies Association. Baltimore 2017.

[Info] Özyurt, Deniz Ö. »The Use Of Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War: A Comparative Study on the Bosnian and Rwandan Cases.« Evil, Women and the Feminine. Dubrovnik 2015.

[Info] Perry, Ashlie T. »Sexual Violence as Politics: Policy Implications of Sexual Violence as a Tactic of Armed Conflict.« 42nd Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association. Boston 2010.

[Info] Perry, Ashlie T. »Sexual Violence as Politics: Policy Implications of Sexual Violence as a Tactic of Armed Conflict.« 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology. Istanbul 2011.

[Info] Salinger, Liv. »Intervening in Wartime Rape: Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Guatemala.« Scholarly and Creative Works Conference. San Rafael 2019.

[Info] Schwartz, Agatha. »The Politics of Memory: Sexual Violence and the End of WWII in Germany and in the War in Bosnian-Herzegovina (1992-1995).« 21st Century Reflections on Sexual Violence in Wars, its Transgenerational and Transnational Impact. Ottawa 2018.

[Info] Schwartz, Agatha. »Not Supposed to Be Born? Narrative Constructions of Identity in Children Born of Rape in Post-WWII Germany and Post-Conflict Bosnia.« 26th International Conference of Europeanists. Madrid 2019.

[Info] Sethna, Christabelle. »Woman as Vessel: Sexual Violence, Abortion and Unwanted Pregnancy in the Feminist Second Wave Context.« 26th International Conference of Europeanists. Madrid 2019.

[Info] Takševa, Tatjana. »Deconstructing Ethnic Boundaries: Bosnian Children Born of War and Identity Beyond Ethnicity.« 21st Century Reflections on Sexual Violence in Wars, its Transgenerational and Transnational Impact. Ottawa 2018.

[Info] Takševa, Tatjana. »War Trauma and Healing, Successes and Challenges: In Conversation with Bosnian Women Rape Survivors.« 21st Century Reflections on Sexual Violence in Wars, its Transgenerational and Transnational Impact. Ottawa 2018.

[Info] Taylor, Jessica. »Come and See What God Has Done: Sexual and Religious Violence in the Bosnian War.« 22nd Annual Graduate Research Conference at the University of New Brunswick. Fredericton 2015.

[Info] Taylor, Jessica. »Miscible Violence: Short Term Impacts of Religious Violence on the Use of Sexual Violence in the Bosnian War.« 17th Annual University of Maine/University of New Brundwick International Graduate Student Conference. Orono 2016.

[Info] Taylor, Jessica. »'Once She's Baptized, That Would be a Sin': Short Term Impacts of Religious Violence on the Use of Sexual Violence in the Bosnian War.« History, Memory, and Justice. Fort Myers 2017.

[Info] ten Bensel, Tusty. »Collective Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Sierra Leone: A Comparative Case Study Analysis.« Harvard Kennedy School. Cambridge 2014.

[Info] Weitsman, Patricia A. »Women, War, and Identity: Policies of Mass Rape in Bosnia and Rwanda.« 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association. San Diego 2006.

[Info] Zohra, Israt T., et al. »The Motivations of Wartime Rape: A Case Study of Rape Victims from the Former Yugoslavia.« 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. San Francisco 2010.

[Info] Zohra, Tusty. »The Collective Nature of Sexual Violence: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.« 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. Chicago 2012.