Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke

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Alphabetical Index

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Start: Topical Index: Types: Sexual Assault: Forced Prostitution:

Types: Forced Prostitution:
"COMFORT WOMEN" SYSTEM

I n f o r m a t i o n

»Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied countries and territories before and during World War II. The term "comfort women" is a translation of the Japanese ianfu, which literally means "comforting, consoling woman". During World War II, Japanese troops forced hundreds of thousands of women from Australia, Burma, China, Netherlands, Philippines, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, and other countries into sexual enslavement for Japanese troops; however, the majority of the women were from Korea. Many women died or committed suicide due to brutal mistreatment and sustained physical and emotional distress. After the war, Japan's acknowledgment of the comfort women's plight was minimal, lacking a full apology and appropriate restitution, which damaged Japan's reputation in Asia for decades. Only in the 1990s did the Japanese government begin to officially apologize and offer compensation.« -- More information: Wikipedia


B i b l i o g r a p h y

Prosecution: War Crimes Trials in the Netherlands East Indies

Victims: Groups: Chinese "Comfort Women", Dutch "Comfort Women", Indonesian "Comfort Women", Japanese "Comfort Women", Korean "Comfort Women", Philippine "Comfort Women", Singaporean "Comfort Women", Taiwanese "Comfort Women", Vietnamese "Comfort Women"; Reactions: Narratives

Society: Commemoration, Historical Revisionism, Politics, Redress

Research: Debates, Teaching History

Representations: Art, Comics, Dance, Films, Historiography, Literature, Media


General

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Masculinity of Japanese Soldiers and Comfort Women in the Japanese Army during World War II.� Seoul National University. Seoul 2004.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Making a "Fallen" Woman: Femininity and "Military Sex Slaves".� Women's Worlds 2005: 9th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women. Seoul 2005.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Remembering the Comfort Women Issue: From Oblivion to Memory Boom.� Sexuality in the Collective Memory of the Cooperation: Comparative Studies of Gender History in France and Korea. Seoul 2007.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Japan�s �Comfort Women� and Historical Memory: The Neonationalist Counterattack.� The Power of Memory in Modern Japan. Edited by Sven Saaler et al. London 2008: 32-53.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Whose Comfort? The 'Comfort Women' in Colonial and Subject Discourse and Praxis.� Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica. Taipei City 2008.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. ��Taming Soldiers�: The Gender Politics of Japanese Soldiers in Total War.� Gender Politics and Mass Dictatorship. Edited by Jie-Hyun Lim et al. Basingstoke 2010: 213-234.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. �Transnationalism in the 'Comfort Women' Campaign.� Chao Center for Asian Studies, Rice University. Houston 2011.

[Info] Ahn, Yonson. ��Taming Soldiers�: Gender Politics of Japanese Soldiers in Total War.� �Against Our Will��Forty Years After: Exploring the Field of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Hamburg 2015.

[Info] Ajia Fo?ramu hen, ed. Moto "Ianfu" no Shogen: 50 Nen no Chinmoku wo Yabutte. Tokyo 1997.

[Info] Allen, J. Michael. �Comfort Women.� The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Vol. I. Edited by Junius P. Rodriguez. Santa Barbara 1997: 175-176.

[Info] �lvarez, Mar�a del Pilar. �Postcolonialismo y derechos humanos en el este de Asia. El caso de las ex esclavas sexuales de la armada imperial japonesa: de la prostituci�n forzada al feminismo humanitario.� Pilquen. Secci�n Ciencias Sociales 18 (2015): 14-24.

[Info] �lvarez, Mar�a del Pilar. �Militancia diasp�rica: El ciclo de acci�n colectiva de apoyo a las �mujeres de confort� en Europa y EEUU (2015-2016).� Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internactionals No. 121 (2019): 209-231.

[Info] �lvarez, Mar�a del Pilar. �Nationalizing Transnationalism: A Comparative Study of the �Comfort Women� Social Movement in China, Taiwan, and South Korea.� Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia 19 (2020): 8-30.

[Info] Angeles, Leonora. �The Sexual Slavery of "Comfort Women": Forced Intimate Labour During Wartime.� The "Comfort Women" and Contemporary Forms of Sexual Violence Against Women. Vancouver 2014.

[Info] Argibay, Carmen M. �Sexual Slavery and the "Comfort Women" of World War II.� Berkeley Journal of International Law 21 (2003): 375-389.

[Info] Ars, Brigitte. Troostmeisjes. Verkrachting in naam van de keizer. Amsterdam 2000.

[Info] As?, Tetsuo. Shanghai yori Shanghai e: Heitan by?in no sanfujinka. Fukuoka 1993.

[Info] As?, Tetsuo. From Shanghai to Shanghai: The War Diary of an Imperial Japanese Medical Officer, 1937-1941. Norwalk 2004.

[Info] Asplund, Andr�. Historiebruk i Japan: Skapandet av ett dominerande kulturellt minne r�rande krigsbrott under andra v�rldskriget: Nanjingmassakern och Comfort Women. Studentarbete andra termin, Lunds Universitet, 2007.

[Info] Baba, Ai. »A Case for Including Asexuality in the Study of History: Fighting Against Historical Amnesiaand Evasion of Colonial Responsibility.« 38th Annual Meeting of the National Women's Studies Association. Atlanta 2018.

[Info] Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York 2000.

[Info] Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. Baltimore 2001.

[Info] Beal, Tim, et al. �Ghosts of the Past: The Japanese History Textbook Controversy.� New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 4 (2001): 177-188.

[Info] Bin, Mei F. �???????????????.� ?????????????? 13 (2020): 207-231.

[Info] Bitanga, Fides B.A. �A Moral Education: Another Look at Comfort Women (A Review).� AERA Research Journal 3 (2013): 65-73.

[Info] Blackburn, Kevin. »Q and A interview: 'Comfort women' of world war II : ssociate professor Kevin Blackburn's research.« Teaching History 57 (2023): 36-37.

[Info] Chang, Whi. ��Comfort Women� and Conflict over History in East Asia: Trends and Directions.� Journal of Conflict and Integration 2 (2018): 138-147.

[Info] Chen, Jianyue. �Comfort Women.� 89th Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association. Denver 2009.

[Info] Chen, Jianyue. �The Issue of the Comfort Women.� Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Philadelphia 2010.

[Info] Chong, Young-hwan. �???? ????, ??? ????: ??? ??? ??? ?????.� Maru?k'u?su?-chuu?i yo?n'gu 13 (2016): 217-234.

[Info] Cohen, David. �Historiography, War, and War Crimes: The Representation of World War II.� Rechtshistorisches Journal No. 19 (2000): 413-431.

[Info] Dionisio, Agnese. »Intersecting Lives, Silenced Stories, and the Quest for Reconciliation in the Japanese Empire's Shadow.« Japan History Workshop. Tokyo 2023.

[Info] Dudden, Alexis, chair. �Speaking and Silencing Comfort Women: Empires, Forgotten across Time.� Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Seattle 2024.

[Info] Dutridge-Corp, Elizabeth A. Reconciling the Past. H. R. 121 and the Japanese Textbook Controversy. M.A. Thesis, Bowling Green State University, 2009.

[Info] Dyachkov, I.V. �???????????? ?????? ? ???????? (Istoricheskaya pamyat' i politika): ???????? �?????? ??? ????????� ? ??????????? ????????????-???????? ??????????.� ???????? ???????????? No. 4 (2019): 72-87.

[Info] Eastwood, Margaret, et al. �A Comparative Analysis between Cases of Genocidal Rape in Bosnia Herzegovina and the Silent Voices of the �Comfort Women.� 7th Bi-annual Conference of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. Sarajevo 2007.

[Info] Edwards, Wallace. Comfort Women: A History of Japanese Forced Prostitution During the Second World War. 2013.

[Info] Elfman, Lois. �Scholars Seek Justice for Often Disregarded Comfort Women.� Women in Higher Education 26 (2017): 7-15.

[Info] Filiz, Burcu. Militarizm ve Kad?n: ?kinci D�nya Sava??'n?n Rahatlat?c? Kad?nlar?. Thesis, Istanbul Bilgi �niversitesi, 2019.

[Info] Fisk, Brian B. The political history of Japan's "war legacy issue": The persistent foreign and domestic influence of World War II. M.A. Thesis, University of Maine, 2013.

[Info] Frix, Noëlie. »Patriarchal State Projects and the Exploitation of Women: A Case Study of Japan�s Sex Industry (1870s-1950s).« Journal of Human Trafficking (May 10, 2023).

[Info] Frühstück, Sabine. �The Uses of Popular Culture for Sex and Violence.� Departmental Newsletter - Department of East Asian Languages and Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara 6 (2013): 2-7.

[Info] Frühstück, Sabine. Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan. Cambridge 2022.

[Info] Fujime, Yuki. �Refuting the Legitimacy of the View that "Comfort Women" were Licensed Prostitutes.� Women's Asia 21 No. 5 (1999): 62-66.

[Info] Gao, Fanfu. �Riben shehui chuantong yu rijun weianfu zhidu.� Xuehai No. 3 (2005): 58-61.

[Info] Gao, Fanfu, et al. �Riben junren de xingxinli yu weianfu zhidu.� Nan jing she hui ke xue No. 8 (2006): 87-92.

[Info] Gayle, Curtis A. �The World of Modern Japanese Historiography: Tribulations and Transformations in Historical Approaches.� A Companion to Global Historical Thought. Edited by Prasenjit Duara et al. Malden 2014: 213-227.

[Info] Ha, Jongmoon. � Comfort Station in War Diaries: A Focus on Okidaito Island.� Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Seattle 2024.

[Info] Hasenkamp, Miao-ling L. �Transitional Justice in Ostasien: Die Suche nach Gerechtigkeit aus globaler und lokaler Perspektive.� Handbuch Transitional Justice: Aufarbeitung von Unrecht � hin zur Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Demokratie. Edited by Anja Mihr et al. Wiesbaden 2018: 495-521.

[Info] Hatch, Walter. �Bloody Memories: Affect and Effect of World War II Museums in China and Japan.� Peace & Change 39 (2014): 366-394.

[Info] Hayashi, Hirofumi. �Burma Mandalay no nihongun ianjo kitei.� Kikan-sens? sekinin kenky? No. 6 (1994).

[Info] Hayashi, Hirofumi. �Government, the Military and Business in Japan's Wartime Comfort Woman System.� Asia-Pacific Journal 5 (2007).

[Info] Hein, Patrick. �The Role of Victim Witness Testimonies for Collective Memory Formation, Recovery from Trauma and Future Reconciliation: The case of the truth commission in South Africa, the international Khmer Rouge tribunal and the Comfort Women's War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo (2000).� XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology. Yokohama 2014.

[Info] Hein, Patrick. �Unresolved Comfort Women Issue: How Pragmatism Precludes Reconciliation.� Korean Journal of International Studies 14 (2016): 447-460.

[Info] Hendler, Jesse. The Missing Chapter: The History of Military Comfort Women and Its Exclusion from Japan�s Social Memory. M.A. Thesis, California State University, 2020.

[Info] Henry, Nicola. �Memory of an Injustice: The "Comfort Women" and the Legacy of the Tokyo Trial.� Asian Studies Review 37 (2013): 362-380.

[Info] Hwang, Junghyun. �Reading the �Comfort Women� in Cloud Atlas: A Comparative Approach.� ???????? No. 49 (2019): 287-315.

[Info] Ichikaya Mitzy, Gulia, et al. �Comfort Women: The Causes of Other Trade Wars in East Asia.� Journal of Social Political Sciences 1 (2020): 178-194.

[Info] Ikeda, Eriko. �The Role of NGOs in the Comfort Women Issue.� Common Grounds: Violence against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations. Edited by Indai L. Sajor. Quezon City 1998: 205-213.

[Info] Inoue, Setsuko. Senry?gun ianjo. Kokka ni yoru baishun shisetsu: haisen hishi. Tokyo 1995.

[Info] Ishikawa, I. "Jyugun ianfu" ni sareta shojyotachi. Tokyo 1993.

[Info] It?, Keiichi. �Senj? ianfu: Zakkan.� Ajia josei k?ry?shi kenky? No. 1 (1967): 11-15.

[Info] Iwada, Shigenori. �Nihonjin dansei no sei kodo to sei ishiki: 1910-30 nendai o chushin ni.� Rekishi Hy?ron No. 4 (1998): 28-39.

[Info] Jacob, Frank. Japanese War Crimes during World War II: Atrocity and the Psychology of Collective Violence. Santa Barbara 2018.

[Info] Jung, Soo-Hyun. �Comfort Women: Understanding a WWII Tragedy outside the Nationalistic Lens.� Concord Review 25 (2014): 1-57.

[Info] Kang, Jeongsook. �A Study on Gender, Class and Nation through the Military Sexual Slavery during World War II.� Women's Worlds 2005. 9th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women. Seoul 2005.

[Info] Kang, Laura H.Y. Traffic in Asian Women. Durham 2020.

[Info] Kang, S.M., et al. �Chunhwangjekuk gwa sungpokryuk.� Hanguk yeosunghak 9 (1993): 52-89.

[Info] Kang, So-young. �??? �???� ???? ???: ??? ???(?????)? ???? ??.� ???? No. 36 (2019): 5-29.

[Info] Kim, Chae-Han, et al. »Japanese Authorities, the �Comfort Project�, and Tacit Contracts under Militaristic Rule during the Pacific War.« Asian Studies Review (April 20, 2023).

[Info] Kim, Christine. The Comfort Women System: Sexual Slavery during World War II. Honors Thesis, DePauw University, 2017.

[Info] Kim, Il-Myon. Nihon josei aishi: Y?jo, jor?, karayuki, ianfu no keifu. Tokyo 1980.

[Info] Kim, Ji Y., et al. �Settlement Without Consensus: International Pressure, Domestic Backlash, and the Comfort Women Issue in Japan.� Pacific Affairs 90 (2017): 77-99.

[Info] Kim, Jimin. �"Comfort Women" Activism in the United States: The Example of the Kupferberg Holocaust Center.� 17th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, Genders and Sexualities. Hempstead 2017.

[Info] Kim, Nami. �Genocide or Gynecide? Japan�s "Military Comfort System".� Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion. Toronto 2002.

[Info] Kim, Phyllis, et al., eds. Curriculum and Resources for �Comfort Women� Education (For High School). Glendale 2018.

[Info] Kim, Sohyung. �??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??.� The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 21 10 (2019): 1-14.

[Info] Kimura, Koichi. �Between Caesar�s state and God�s kingdom: Theological reflection on two citizenships in terms of the issue of ianfu.� Review & Expositor 112 (2015): 403-417.

[Info] Kimura, Maki. Unfolding the 'Comfort Women' Debates: Modernity, Violence, Women's Voices. Basingstoke 2016.

[Info] Knop, Karen, et al. �Space, Time, and Historical Injustice: A Feminist Conflict-of-Laws Approach to the "Comfort Women" Agreement.� Cornell Law Review 102 (2017): 853-927.

[Info] Koh, Jinyang. Comfort Women: Human Rights of Women from Then to Present. LL.M. Thesis, University of Georgia, 2007.

[Info] Kohama, Masako. �(Asian History in Gender Perspective: How to Teach the "Comfort Women").� Gakujutsu no do?ko? 19 (2014): 16-24.

[Info] Kraft, Claudia, et al., org. Sexual Violence in World War II . Bonn 2010.

[Info] Kumagai, Naoko. �Ontological Security and Japan�s Ideological Debate over Compensating Wartime �Comfort Women�.� Social Science Japan Journal (2015).

[Info] Lai, Graceia, et al. ????? / Silent Scars: ?????????? / History of Sexual Slavery by the Japanese Military�A Pictorial Book. Taipei 2005.

[Info] Lawson, Konrad M. Universal Crime, Particular Punishment: Trying the Atrocities of the Japanese Occupation as Treason in the Philippines, 1947-1953. Fiesole 2013.

[Info] Lee, Chung J. �A Sentimentalist Approach to the Comfort Women Issue: Reading a Documentary "The Big Picture" through the Notion of Sympathy.� Asian Conference on Film and Documentary (2014): 103-115.

[Info] Lee, Chung J. �A Sentimentalist Approach to the Comfort Women Issue: Reading a Documentary The Big Picture through the Notion of Sympathy.� (KCI Candidated Journal) 13 (2014): 207-236.

[Info] Lee, Janice. �Uncomfortable �Comfort Women� Examining Shame Culture and the Internal Conflict Between Japanese?Americans and Korean?Americans Regarding the Comfort Women Issue.� Pepperdine Journal of Communication Research 6 (2018): 11-19.

[Info] Lee, Jeewon, et al. �Transgenerational Transmission of Trauma: Psychiatric Evaluation of Offspring of Former �Comfort Women,�Survivors of the Japanese Military Sexual Slavery during World War II.� Psychiatry Investigation 16 (2019): 249-253.

[Info] Lee, Jude. �Beyond "Comfort Women": Military Camptowns in South Korea.� The "Comfort Women" and Contemporary Forms of Sexual Violence Against Women. Vancouver 2014.

[Info] Lee, Na-Young. �Post / Colonial Presence of Japanese Military �Comfort Women�.� �Against Our Will��Forty Years After: Exploring the Field of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Hamburg 2015.

[Info] Lee, Na-Young. �????? ???? ???? ? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??.� ??? ?? ? 11 (2018): 125-156.

[Info] Luck, Annemarie. �No comfort in the truth.� Index on Censorship 47 (2018): 19-21.

[Info] Lytle, Angela. �Intersectional Discrimination, Systemic Oppression, & the Politics of Trauma: Japanese Military Sexual Slavery is Not 'Just an Historic Issue'.� The "Comfort Women" and Contemporary Forms of Sexual Violence Against Women. Vancouver 2014.

[Info] Margolin, Jean-Louis. �Japanese history textbooks and the Asia-Pacific War: Apportioning blame.� Controversial History Education in Asian Contexts. Edited by Mark Baildon et al. New York 2014: 109-122.

[Info] McCarthy, Mary M. US Comfort Women Memorials: Vehicles for Understanding and Change. Washington, D.C. 2014.

[Info] Morita, Seiya. �Sexual Violence in Wartime and Peacetime: Violence Against Women in the 20st Century.� The Asia-Pacific Journal 19(5) (2021).

[Info] M�hlh�user, Regina. �Methodological Remarks Concerning the Comparison between the Comfort Women System of the Japanese Army and Sexual Violence Carried out by Wehrmacht and SS in the Soviet Union.� Sexual Violence in World War II. Bonn 2010.

[Info] M�hlh�user, Regina. �A comparative view of Japanese 'comfort stations' and German military brothels during WW II.� Historicizing Rape. Cardiff 2015.

[Info] M�hlh�user, Regina, et al. �Sexuelle Gewalt im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Die "comfort women" der japanischen Armee und die Wehrmachtsbordelle in Polen und der Sowjetunion.� Berlin 2012.

[Info] Murata, Alice, et al. �Definition of Peace and Reconciliation in China, Japan, and Korea.� International Handbook of Peace and Reconciliation. Edited by Kathleen Malley-Morrison et al. New York 2013: 117-130.

[Info] Murphy, Meghan, et al. �Interview with Angela Lytle on the comfort women of Japan.� Feminist Current (2014).

[Info] Muta, Kazue. �Sexual Violence and the Issue of Comfort Women in Contemporary Japan.� XVIII ISA World Congress of Sociology. Yokohama 2014.

[Info] Nishino, Rumiko. Jugun ianfu: Moto heishitachi no sho?gen. Tokyo 1992.

[Info] Nishino, Rumiko, et al., eds. Denying the Comfort Women: The Japanese State's Assault on Historical Truth. London 2018.

[Info] Norma, Caroline. The Japanese Comfort Women and Sexual Slavery during the China and Pacific Wars. London 2016.

[Info] Nozaki, Yoshiko. �The "Comfort Women" Controversy: History, Testimony, Restitution� From History Conflict to Trust Building: A Discussion of Japan's New History Textbooks. New York 2005.

[Info] Nozaki, Yoshiko. �The Representation of "Comfort Women" and Politics of History in Contemporary Japan.� 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies. San Francisco 2006.

[Info] Nozaki, Yoshiko. �The Japanese textbook controversy over the military "comfort women": History, epistemology, and peace & justice education.� 2007 Gender Week: Engendering Possibilities. New York 2007.

[Info] Nozaki, Yoshiko. �Peace and justice education, postmodern debates, and the case of Japan's military "comfort women".� 51st Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society. Baltimore 2007.

[Info] Ogoshi, Aiko, et al. �Japanese Women Who Stand with Comfort Women.� War's Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against Women. Edited by Anne L. Barstow. Cleveland 2000: 26-36.

[Info] Okano, Yayo. �From recognition of vulnerabilities to caring democracy: A care analysis of the reconciliation process of the �comfort women� issue in Japan.� Routledge Handbook of East Asian Gender Studies. Edited by Jieyu Liu et al. London 2020: 403-417.

[Info] Onozawa, Akane. �Japanese comfort women: Victim of Patriotism and Human Trafficking.� 17th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, Genders and Sexualities. Hempstead 2017.

[Info] Osanai, Tsuneko. �Imperial Authorization of Abduction, Detention and Military Gang Rape.� Women's Asia 21 No. 1 (1995): 26-31.

[Info] Otabe, Y?ji, et al. K?w?do Nihon no sens? hanzai. Tokyo 1995.

[Info] Otero-Gonz�lez, Uxia. �La esclavitud sexual militar en Asia Oriental (1931-1945): Del mutismos nip�n al debate internacional y los movimientos transnacionales de mujeres.� Del siglo XIX al XXI. Tendencias y debates: XIV Congreso de la Asociaci�n de Historia Contempor�nea, Universidad de Alicante 20-22 de septiembre de 2018. Edited by Rafael Fern�ndez Sirvent et al. Alicante 2019: 1610-1624.

[Info] Pan, Keyao. �Locating Japan in Past and Present: The Issues of Human Rights, Asianism, and Gender As Seen through the Activism of Matsui Yayori.� Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Seattle 2024.

[Info] Park, Erica. The Trials of a Comfort Woman. Senior Thesis, Claremont McKenna College, 2011.

[Info] Park, Sara. �Colonialism and Sisterhood: Japanese Female Activists and the �Comfort Women� Issue.� Critical Sociology (November 18, 2019).

[Info] Park, You-me. �Gendering �Bare Life�: Slavery, Comfort Women, and Sexual Violence.� 38th Annual Conference of the National Women's Studies Association. Baltimore 2017.

[Info] Park, You-me. ��Final and Irreversible�: Neoliberal Temporality, Wednesday Demonstration, and Transnational Feminist Alliances.� Annual Meeting of the National Women's Studies Association. San Francisco 2019.

[Info] Park, Yu-ha. Considering the Comfort Women Issue: Toward a Shared Historical Understanding and Reconciliation. Tokyo 2020.

[Info] Parker, Karen, et al. �Compensation for Japan's World War II War-Rape Victims.� Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 17 (1994): 497-549.

[Info] Posada Martinez, Tatiana A. La seguridad de las mujeres versus la seguridad del estado. Caso: La esclavitud sexual durante la segunda guerra mundial por parte del imperio japones. Trabajo de grado, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2015.

[Info] Romeu, Maria G. The Japanese History Textbook Controversy Amid Post-War Sino-Japanese Relations. Master Thesis, Florida International University, 2013.

[Info] Ryan, J.S.A. The �Comfort Women� Issue: Moving Beyond the Debate. Master Thesis, Utrecht University, 2018.

[Info] Saito, Masami. »�Racism� in the �Comfort Women� Dispute.« Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Toronto 2012.

[Info] Sasaki, Yoko. �Sharing Blame in Conflict Approach (Kenka Ryoseibai): As Obstacle in Reconciliation of Wartime Sexual Violence.� 16th International Conference of the European Association of Japanese Studies. Virtual 2021.

[Info] Sato, Shigesu. �Various terms for a comfort women.� The Encyclopedia of Indonesia in the Pacific War. Edited by Peter Post. Leiden 2010: 196-197.

[Info] Seaton, Philip A. Japan's Contested War Memories: The 'memory rifts' in historical consciousness of World War II. London 2007.

[Info] Selmanagi?, Emina. Mass Rape in Wartime Japan and Bosnia-Herzegovina: "Comfort Women" and Genocidal Rape. Tesi di laurea, Universit� Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2016.

[Info] Sneider, Daniel. �Textbooks and Patriotic Education: Wartime Memory Formation in China and Japan.� Asia-Pacific Review 20 (2013): 35-54.

[Info] Soh, Chunghee S. �Beyond the Nationalist Pride and Adversarial Prejudice: Toward a Reconciliation over the 'Comfort Women' Issue.� International Seminar organized by the Asian Women's Fund. Tokyo 2006.

[Info] Soh, Chunghee. �Truth, Justice, Reconciliation.� Sexual Violence in World War II. Bonn 2010.

[Info] Song, Anna. �The Task of an Activist: "Imagined Communities" and the "Comfort Women" Campaigns in Australia.� Asian Studies Review 37 (2013): 381-395.

[Info] Stetz, Margaret, et al., eds. Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II. Armonk 2001.

[Info] Stetz, Margaret. �Teaching Comfort Women Issues: The Hidden Stories of Girls.� War and Sexual Violence: New York 2016.

[Info] Stetz, Margaret D. �Reframing the �Comfort Women� Issue: New Representations of an Old War Crime.� Genocide and Mass Violence in Asia: An Introductory Reader. Edited by Frank Jacob. Berlin 2019: 61-77.

[Info] Stetz, Margaret D. �Teaching about the �Comfort System� of World War II: The Hidden Stories of Girls.� War and Sexual Violence: New Perspectives in a New Era. Edited by Sarah K. Danielsson. Paderborn 2019: 35-49.

[Info] Su, Ziliang. �Shilun zhanhou Riben dui weianfu wenti taidu.� Riben yanjiu No. 3 (1999): 26-32.

[Info] Su, Ziliang. �Xiandai junshi xingnuli. Riben weianfu zhidu sanlun.� Xuexu yuekan No. 8 (2000): 90-99.

[Info] Su, Ziliang. �Shiji da shenpan huimou: 2000 nian dongjing n�xing guoji zhanfating pingshu.� Shanghai Shifan Daxue xuebao No. 1 (2001): 26-29.

[Info] Szczepanska, Kamila. �The Politics of War Memory in Japan 1990-2010: Progressive Civil Society Groups and Contestation of Memory of the Asia-Pacific War (1931-1945).� GEMC journal No. 8 (2013): 210-218.

[Info] Tai, Eika. �Museum Activism Against Military Sexual Slavery.� Museum Anthropology 39 (Spring 2016): 35-47.

[Info] Tai, Eika. »Historical Memory of Survivors.« Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies. Virtual, 2021.

[Info] Tanaka, Toshiyuki. �From karayuki-san to comfort women.� Constellations and Dynamics of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Part II: Sources. Hamburg 2013.

[Info] Tanaka, Yuki. �Continuing Denial of the Victimization of Women: Japan's military sex slaves in World War II.� Wartime Gender Violence: Japan and the Military Enslavement of Women in World War II. Heidelberg 2014.

[Info] Tanaka, Yuki. �The Denial of the �Comfort Women� Issue in Japan.� �Against Our Will��Forty Years After: Exploring the Field of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Hamburg 2015.

[Info] Tanaka, Yuki. �Continuing Denial of the Victimization of Women: Japan's military sex slaves in World War II.� Institut f�r Japanologie, Freie Universit�t Berlin. Berlin 2016.

[Info] Tanaka, Yuki. ��Comfort Women Bashing� and Japan�s Social Formation of Hegemonic Masculinity.� 'History Wars' and Reconciliation in Japan and Korea: The Roles of Historians, Artists and Activists. Edited by Michael Lewis. New York 2017: 163-182.

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