Sexual Violence in History: A Bibliography

compiled by Stefan Blaschke


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Start: Topical Index: Types: Rape: Genocidal Rape: 20th Century:

Types: Rape:

»The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, occurred between 7 April and 15 July 1994 during the Rwandan Civil War. During this period of around 100 days, members of the Tutsi minority ethnic group, as well as some moderate Hutu and Twa, were killed by armed Hutu militias. Although the Constitution of Rwanda states that more than 1 million people perished in the genocide, the real number killed is likely lower. The most widely accepted scholarly estimates are around 500,000 to 800,000 Tutsi deaths.« -- More information: Wikipedia

»During the Rwandan genocide of 1994, over the course of 100 days, up to half a million women and children were raped, sexually mutilated, or murdered. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) handed down the first conviction for the use of rape as a weapon of war during the civil conflict, and, because the intent of the mass violence against Rwandan women and children was to destroy, in whole or in part, a particular ethnic group, it was the first time that mass rape during wartime was found to be an act of genocidal rape.
The mass rapes were carried out by the Interahamwe militia and members of the Hutu civilian population, both male and female, the Rwandan military, and the Rwandan Presidential Guard. The sexual violence was directed at the national and local levels by political and military leaders in the furtherance of their goal, the destruction of the Tutsi ethnic group.« -- More information: Wikipedia

[Info] Allar, Kimberly. �Setting the picture straight: The ordinary women of Nazi Germany and Rwanda who participated in genocide.� Aftermath: Gendocide, Memory and History. Edited by Karen Auerbach. Clayton 2015: 21-47.

[Info] Applebaum, Jenna. �Transitional Justice and its Stories: Complicating the Genocidal Rape Monologue in Rwanda.� 82nd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society. New York 2012.

[Info] Arias Casas, Carlos E. El cuerpo de la mujer como arma de guerra en el conflicto armado en Ruanda: Un aprendizaje para el proceso de paz colombiano. Trabajo de Grado, Universidad Catolica de Colombia, 2016.

[Info] Baines, Erin K. �Body politics and the Rwandan crisis.� Third World Quarterly 24 (2003): 479-493.

[Info] Bandau, Anja. �Vergewaltigung als Trope? Texte �ber den Genozid in Ruanda.� B�rgerkrieg. Erfahrung und Repr�sentation. Edited by Isabella von Treskow et al. Berlin 2005: 225-257.

[Info] Bassett, Gwyn D. A Discourse Analysis of Rape in War: Case Studies from Bosnia, Burma and Rwanda. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, 2005.

[Info] Bell, Kristin A. �The Phenomenon of Sexual Violence in the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.� 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology Atlanta 2013.

[Info] Bell, Kristin A. Victims' Voices: Sexual Violence in the Armenian and Rwandan Genocides. Ph.D. Thesis, Northeastern University, 2014.

[Info] Berry, Marie E. �From Violence to Mobilization: Women, War, and Threat in Rwanda.� Mobilization 20 (2015): 135-156.

[Info] Blizzard, Sarah M. Women�s roles in the 1994 Rwanda genocide and the empowerment of women in the aftermath. M.Sc. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006.

[Info] Boczar, Amanda. �US Foreign Policy in the Wake of Mass Violence: Bosnia and Rwanda.� War and Sexual Violence. New York 2016.

[Info] Burnet, Jennie E. Genocide Lives in Us: Amplified Silence and the Politics of Memory in Rwanda. Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2005.

[Info] Burnet, Jennie E. Genocide Lives in Us: Women, Memory, and Silence in Rwanda. Madison 2012.

[Info] Burnet, Jennie E. �Situating Sexual Violence in Rwanda (1990�2001): Sexual Agency, Sexual Consent, and the Political Economy of War.� African Studies Review 55 (2012): 97-118.

[Info] Burnet, Jennie E. �Sexual Violence, Female Agencies, and Sexual Consent: Complexities of Sexual Violence in the 1994 Rwandan Genodice.� Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: International Agendas and African Contexts. Edited by Doris Buss et al. New York 2014: 131-144.

[Info] Buss, Doris E. �Rethinking �Rape as a Weapon of War�.� Feminist Legal Studies 17 (2009): 145-163.

[Info] Chu, Sandra K.H., et al. �Tragedy and Triumph: Rwandan Women's Resilience in the Face of Sexual Violence.� Amsterdam Law Forum 3 (2011): 203-205.

[Info] Costello, Emma M. Justice for Whom? The Gacaca Courts and Restorative Justice for Survivors of Sexual Violence in Rwanda. B.A. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2016.

[Info] Coundouriotis, Eleni. �"You Only Have Your Word": Rape and Testimony.� Human Rights Quarterly 35 (2013): 365-385.

[Info] Crawley, Karen, et al. �Unintended Consequences: Representations of Rwandan Women and Their Children Born From Rape.� Australian Feminist Law Journal 36 (2012): 87-106.

[Info] Crider, Lindsey. �Rape as a Crime and Crime against Humanity: The Effect of Rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda on International Law.� 40th Annual Meeting of the Alabama Political Science Association. Auburn 2012.

[Info] de Beer, Anna-Marie, et al. �Shadows of life, death and survival in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide.� Tydskrif vir Letterkunde 52 (2015): 113-130.

[Info] de Brouwer, Anne-Marie, et al., eds. The Men Who Killed Me: Rwandan Survivors of Sexual Violence. Vancouver 2009.

[Info] de Brouwer, Anne-Marie, et al., eds. De mannen die mij hebben vermoord: Rwandese overlevenden van seksueel geweld. Nijmegen 2011.

[Info] de Brouwer, Anne-Marie, et al. �The Legacy of the Gacaca Courts in Rwanda: Survivors's Views.� International Criminal Law Review 13 (2013): 937-976.

[Info] DeJong, Christina, et al. �Media Reports of War Rape: The Rwandan Genocide.� 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. San Francisco 2010.

[Info] DeJong, Christina. �Media Reports of Rape during and Immediately After the Rwandan Genocide.� 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. Chicago 2012.

[Info] Denov, Myriam, et al. �The Intergenerational Legacy of Genocidal Rape: The Realities and Perspectives of Children Born of the Rwandan Genocide.� Journal of Interpersonal Violence (May 15, 2017).

[Info] Denov, Myriam. ��I Asked Myself if I Would Ever Love My Baby�: Mothering Children Born of Genocidal Rape in Rwanda.� Sexual Violence in the Context of the Holocaust, Genocide and War. Montreal 2018.

[Info] Denov, Myriam, et al. �Mothers of children born of genocidal rape in Rwanda: Implications for mental health, well-being and psycho-social support interventions.� Health Care for Women International (May 14, 2019).

[Info] Denov, Myriam, et al. ��They Should See Us as a Symbol of Reconciliation�: Youth Born of Genocidal Rape in Rwanda and the Implications for Transitional Justice.� Journal of Human Rights Practice 11 (2019): 151-170.

[Info] Denov, Myriam, et al. �An arts-based approach with youth born of genocidal rape in Rwanda: The river of life as an autobiographical mapping tool.� Global Studies of Childhood (February 25, 2021).

[Info] Di Caro, Claire B. �Call It What It Is: Genocide Through Male Rape and Sexual Violence in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.� Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 30 (2019): 57-91.

[Info] Di Palma, Sara V. �Lo stupro come arma contro le donne: l'ex Jugoslavia, il Rwanda e l'area dei Grandi Laghi africani.� Stupri di guerra. La violenza di massa contro le donne nel Novecento. Edited by Marcello Flores. Milan 2010: 216-238.

[Info] Di Palma, Sara V. �Corpi di donne in guerra. La violenza sessuale in Bosnia e Ruanda e i problemi del dopoguerra.� Storicamente No. 10 (2014).

[Info] Ducey, Kimberley A. �Dilemmas of Teaching the "Greatest Silence": Rape-as-Genocide in Rwanda, Darfur, and Congo.� Genocide Studies and Prevention 5 (2010): 310-322.

[Info] Ducey, Kimberley. �Survivors of Sexual Violence in Rwanda Speak: A Letter-Writing Assignment to Combat Psychic Numbing.� Teaching about Genocide: Insights and Advice from Secondary Teachers and Professors. Vol. 1. Edited by Samuel Totten. Lanham 2018: 119-124.

[Info] Fitzpatrick, Brenda. �Rape as genocide. Lessons from the Balkans and Rwanda in the 1990s.� Violence against women. From silence to empowerment. Edited by Don Brandt. Monrovia 2003: 75-83.

[Info] Fitzpatrick, Brenda. Tactical Rape in War and Conflict: International Recognition and Response. Bristol 2016.

[Info] Flanders, Laura. �Rwanda�s living casualties.� War�s dirty secret. Rape, prostitution, and other crimes against women. Edited by Anne L. Barstow. Cleveland 2000: 95-99.

[Info] Fox, Nicole. �Using a Kinship Framework to Understand the Remifications of Genocidal Rape in Rwanda.� 81st Annual Meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society. Philadelphia 2011.

[Info] Gafford, Lindsay D. The gospel of indifference. Rape as a weapon of war and the church in Rwanda and Sudan. M.A. Thesis, Baylor University, 2008.

[Info] Gagro, Sandra F. �The Crime of Rape in the ICTY's and the ICTR's Case-Law.� Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta u Zagrebu 60 (2010): 1309-1334.

[Info] Gallimore, Rangira B. �Militarism, ethnicity, and sexual violence in the Rwandan genocide.� Feminist Africa No. 10 (2008): 9-29.

[Info] Gosh, Gitanjali, et al. �The Evolving Jurisprudence of Rape as a War Crime.� International Journal of Law and Legal Jurisprudence Studies 1 (2014).

[Info] Greve, Kathrin. Sexuelle Gewalt gegen Frauen vor internationalen Strafgerichten. Dissertation, Universit�t Regensburg, 2006.

[Info] Habimana, Emmanuel, et al. �Les viols pendant le g�nocide des Tutsi: Un crime d�envie.� Remembering Mass Violence: Oral History, New Media, and Performance. Edited by Steven High et al. Toronto 2014: 282-296.

[Info] Henry, Nicola. War and Rape: Law, memory and justice. New York 2011.

[Info] Hirschauer, Sabine. All is Fair in War: Violent Conflict and the Securitization of Rape. Ph.D. Thesis, Old Dominion University, 2012.

[Info] Hirschauer, Sabine. The Securitization of Rape: Women, War and Sexual Violence. New York 2014.

[Info] Hitchcott, Nicki. �Intimate Enemies: Representations of Perpetrators in Literary Responses to the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda.� Perpetrating Selves: Doing Violence, Performing Identity. Edited by Clare Bielby et al. Cham 2018: 155-176.

[Info] Hogwood, Jemma, et al. �Genocide and mass sexual violence: Psychological support for women survivors in Rwanda.� Clinical Psychology Forum No. 285 (2016): 8-13.

[Info] Hogwood, Jemma, et al. ��I Learned Who I Am�: Young People Born From Genocide Rape in Rwanda and Their Experiences of Disclosure.� Journal of Adolescent Research (June 11, 2017).

[Info] Hoy, Kellie-Sue. Sexual Violence as an Afterthought: Securing Justice for Sexual Violence Victims in the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Master Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2013.

[Info] Hubbard, Jessica A. Breaking the Silence: Women's Experiences With Sexual Violence During the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. M.Sc. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2007.

[Info] Hubbard, Jessica. Understanding Rape as Genocide: A Feminist Analysis of Sexual Violence and Genocide. Saarbr�cken 2008.

[Info] Jones, Adam. �Gendering Rwanda Genocide and Post-Genocide.� Journal of International Peacekeeping 22 (2020): 215-229.

[Info] Kahn, Sarilee, et al. ��We are children like others�: Pathways to mental health and healing for children born of genocidal rape in Rwanda.� Transcultural Psychiatry (March 7, 2019).

[Info] Kaitesi, Usta. Genocidal Gender and Sexual Violence: The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda's ordinary courts and gacaca courts. Cambridge 2014.

[Info] Kantengwa, Odeth. How Motherhood Triumphs over Traumahood among mothers with children from Genocidal Rape in Rwanda. Maastricht 2014.

[Info] Kantonen, Arto. Rwanda Crisis and Genocide in Case Law of Rwanda Tribunal. Master's Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2006.

[Info] Kennedy, Ellen J. �Women and Genocide: Ending Impunity for Sexual Violence.� Alleviating World Suffering: The Challenge of Negative Quality of Life. Edited byRonald E. Anderson. Cham 2017: 319-334.

[Info] Koomen, Jonneke. �"Without These Women, the Tribunal Cannot Do Anything": The Politics of Witness Testimony on Sexual Violence at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.� Signs 38 (2013): 253-277.

[Info] Kr�ger, Karen. �Die Vergewaltigung von Tutsi-Frauen im rwandischen Genozid 1994.� Feministische Studien 22 (2004): 277-290.

[Info] L�fstr�m, Silja. Bearing Witness to Trauma: An Analysis of Testimonies of Rape in The Men Who Killed Me: Rwandan Survivors of Sexual Violence. Master's Thesis, Tampereen yliopisto, 2015.

[Info] Logan, Sadye. �Remembering the women in Rwanda. When humans rely on the old concepts of war to resolve conflict.� Affilia 21 (2006): 234-239.

[Info] Lyons, Margaret A. �Hearing the Cry Without Answering the Call: Rape, Genocide, and the Rwandan Tribunal.� Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 26 (2001): 99-124.

[Info] MacKinnon, Catherine A. �Defining Rape Internationally: A Comment on Akayesu.� Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 44 (2006): 940-958.

[Info] McFall, Kelly. �Genocide Lives in US: Women, Memory and Silence in Rwanda.� New Books in Genocide Studies (2013).

[Info] McFall, Kelly, et al. �Roundtable: What Do We Now Know About the Rwandan Genocide Twenty Years On?� New Books in Genocide Studies (2014).

[Info] Mibenge, Chiseche. �Witnesses of Sexual Violence in Rwanda and Sierra Leone and International Law.� �Against Our Will��Forty Years After: Exploring the Field of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict. Hamburg 2015.

[Info] Montesano, Michael C. �Preemptive Testimony: Literature as Witness to Genocide in Rwanda.� African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review 5 (2015): 88-105.

[Info] Morris, Meghan B. �Achieving Justice and Rights through Social Development: Suggestions from Rwandan Women Survivors of Rape during Genocide.� Social Development Issues 38 (2016): 38-52.

[Info] Mukamana, Donatilla, et al. �Rape survivors of the Rwandan genocide.� Critical Psychology 17 (2006): 140-166.

[Info] Mukamana, Donatilla, et al. �The Lived Experience of Genocide Rape Survivors in Rwanda.� Journal of Nursing Scholarship 40 (2008): 379�384.

[Info] Mukamana, Donatilla, et al. �Genocide Rape Trauma: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Psychological Suffering of Rwandan Survivors.� Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 32 (2018): 125-143.

[Info] Mukangendo, Marie C. �Caring for Children Born of Rape in Rwanda.� Born of War: Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones. Edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield 2007: 40-52.

[Info] Mukarwego, Athanasie. �Viols des femmes tutsi pendant le g�nocide: T�moignage de Mme Athanasie.� Remembering Mass Violence: Oral History, New Media, and Performance. Edited by Steven High et al. Toronto 2014: 277-281.

[Info] Mullins, Christopher W. �"He would kill me with his penis". Genocidal rape in Rwanda as a state crime.� Critical criminology 17 (2009): 15-33.

[Info] Mullins, Christopher W. ��We are going to rape you and taste Tutsi women�. Rape during the 1994 Rwandan genocide.� British journal of criminology 49 (2009).

[Info] Nagarajan, Chitra. �An appraisal of Rwanda�s response to survivors who experienced sexual violence in 1994.� Wagadu 10 (2012): 108-131.

[Info] Nikuze, Donatien. �Parenting style and its psychological impact on rape born children: Case of raped survivors of the 1994 genocide perpetrated against Tutsi in Rwanda.� International Journal of Development and Sustainability 2 (2013): 1084-1098.

[Info] Nowrojee, Binaifer. "Your Justice is Too Slow": Will the ICTR Fail Rwanda's Rape Victims? Geneva 2005.

[Info] Nshimiyimana, Jean D. Etre enfant d'une survivante et d'un auteur du g�nocide: Le v�cu des adolescents rwandais n�s du viol. Th�se, Universit� de Paries VIII, 2011.

[Info] N��ez del Prado, Fabiana. �Definiendo la violaci�n sexual en el derecho internacional: la contribuci�n de los Tribunales Penales Internacionales ad hoc.� Agenda Internacional 19 (2012): 21-44.

[Info] Oliveira, Claudia. Fathoming the Unfathomable: Gertrude Kearns and the Visual Representation of the Genocide in Rwanda. M.A. Thesis, Concordia University, 2011.

[Info] �zyurt, Deniz �. �The Use Of Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War: A Comparative Study on the Bosnian and Rwandan Cases.� Evil, Women and the Feminine. Dubrovnik 2015.

[Info] Peet, Jessica L., et al. Gender and Civilian Victimization in War. London 2020.

[Info] Perry, Ashlie T. �Sexual Violence as Politics: Policy Implications of Sexual Violence as a Tactic of Armed Conflict.� 42nd Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association. Boston 2010.

[Info] Perry, Ashlie T. �Sexual Violence as Politics: Policy Implications of Sexual Violence as a Tactic of Armed Conflict.� 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology. Istanbul 2011.

[Info] Puechguirbal, Nadine. �Les cons�quences du viol au lendemain des conflits arm�s et son impact sur la r�int�gration sociale des victimes/survivantes au sein de leur communaut�/soci�t�.� Les viols en temps de guerre: une histoire � �crire - Rape in Wartime: A History to be Written. Paris 2009.

[Info] Puechguirbal, Nadine. �Lever le silence: Nouvelles approches des cons�quences du viol en �rythr�e, R�publique D�mocratique du Congo, Rwanda, Somalie (1994-2008).� Viols en temps de guerre. Edited by Rapha�lle Branche et al. Paris 2011: 145- .

[Info] Puechguirbal, Nadine. �Breaking the Silence: New Approaches to the Consequences of Rape in Some African Conflicts, 1994-2008.� Rape in Wartime. Edited by Rapha�lle Branche et al. Basingstoke 2012: 140-152.

[Info] Rafter, Nicole. The Crime of All Crimes: Toward a Criminology of Genocide. New York 2016.

[Info] Rea, Angela. Martial Rape and International Law: The Work of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Memoir, University of Ottawa, 2005.

[Info] Reid-Cunningham, Allison R. �Rape as a Weapon of Genocide.� Genocide Studies and Prevention 3 (2008): 279-296.

[Info] Rieder, Heide, et al. �Rwanda -- lasting imprints of a genocide: trauma, mental health and psychosocial conditions in survivors, former prisoners and their children.� Conflict and Health 7 (2013).

[Info] Rubin, Sarah, et al. ��Shopping for a Baby�: Motherhood as a Mode of Resilience among Rwandan Survivors of Genocide-Rape.� 108th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Philadelphia 2009.

[Info] Rugema, Lawrence, et al. �Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later.� BMC Public Health 13 (2013).

[Info] Russell, Susan G., et al. �The Legacy of Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in the Post-Genocide Era: Stories From Women in Rwanda.� Health Care for Women International (August 20, 2015).

[Info] Rwagatare, Patrick, et al. �G�nocide des Tutsis au Rwanda: Quand le viol des femmes est utilise pour annihiler l�origine m�me de la vie et de la pens�e.� Cahiers de psychologie clinique No. 45 (2015): 165-189.

[Info] Sandstr�m, Sofie. History delayed: The response of the United Nations to rape as an act of genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda in the 1990's. Master Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2005.

[Info] Schoenfeld, Jacqueline A. �A Constructivist Perspective of Rape as a Military Strategy: A Comparative Analysis of the Rwandan Genocide and the Bosnian War.� USURJ: University of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Research Journal 4 (2018).

[Info] Sharlach, Lisa. �Gender and genocide in Rwanda. Women as agents and objects of genocide.� Journal of genocide research 1 (1999): 387-399.

[Info] Sharlach, Lisa. �Rape as genocide. Bangladesh, the former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda.� New political science 22 (2000): 89-102.

[Info] Silva Espina, Elizabeth A. Los actos de violencia sexual contra las mujeres en conflicto de guerra como constitutivos del crimen de genocidio. Memoria, Universidad de Chile, 2013.

[Info] Skjelsb�k, Inger. �Sexual violence in times of war. A new challenge for peace operations?� International peacekeeping 8 (2001): 69-84.

[Info] St. Germain, Tonia, et al. �Justice on whose terms? A critique of international criminal justice responses to conflict-related sexual violence.� Women's Studies International Forum 37 (2013): 36-45.

[Info] Temoney, Kate E. �Lessons from the 1994 Rwanda Genocide: The Religion/Genocide Nexus, Sexual Violence, and the Future of Genocide Studies.� Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion. San Diego 2014.

[Info] Temoney, Kate E. �The 1994 Rwandan Genocide: The Religion/Genocide Nexus, Sexual Violence, and the Future of Genocide Studies.� Genocide Studies and Prevention 10 (2016): 3-24.

[Info] Thach, Thida. La repr�sentation de la violence faite aux femmes dans Un dimanche � la piscine � Kigali de Gil Courtemanche et Je m�appelle Bosnia de Madeleine Gagnon. M.A. Thesis, University of Ottawa, 2014.

[Info] Torgovnik, Jonathan. Intended Consequences: Rwandan Children Born of Rape. New York 2009.

[Info] Trouille, Helen. �How Far Has the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Really Come since Akayesu in the Prosecution and Investigation of Sexual Offences Committed against Women? An Analysis of Ndindiliyimana et al.� International Criminal Law Review 13 (2013): 747-788.

[Info] Weitsman, Patricia A. �Women, War, and Identity: Policies of Mass Rape in Bosnia and Rwanda.� 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association. San Diego 2006.

[Info] Weitsman, Patricia A. �The politics of identity and sexual violence. A review of Bosnia and Rwanda.� Human rights quarterly 30 (2008): 561-578.

[Info] Wells, Sarah L. �Gender, Sexual Violence and Prospects for Justice at the Gacaca Courts in Rwanda.� Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies 14 (2005): 167-196.

[Info] Wolff, Anne. �What About Those Who Lived? Justice for Rwandan Women Survivors.� Women Leading Change 1 (2016): 69-79.

[Info] Woolner, Leah, et al. ��I Asked Myself If I Would Ever Love My Baby�: Mothering Children Born of Genocidal Rape in Rwanda.� Violence Against Women (October 5, 2018).

[Info] Zawati, Hilmi M., et al., eds. A Selected Socio-Legal Bibliography on Ethnic Cleansing, Wartime Rape, and Genocide in the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Lewiston 2004.

[Info] Zohra, Tusty. �The Collective Nature of Sexual Violence: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.� 68th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology. Chicago 2012.

[Info] Zraly, Maggie. Bearing: Resilience among Genocide-Rape Survivors in Rwanda. Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 2008.

[Info] Zraly, Maggie, et al. �Don�t let the suffering make you fade away: An ethnographic study of resilience among survivors of genocide-rape in southern Rwanda.� Social Science & Medicine 70 (2010): 1656-1664.

[Info] Zraly, Maggie, et al. �Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda.� Global Public Health 6 (2011): 257-270.

[Info] Zraly, Maggie, et al. �Motherhood and Resilience among Rwandan Genocide-Rape Survivors.� Ethos 41 (2013): 411-439.